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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 9 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Fabrinet was -1.19. The lowest was -3.43. And the median was -2.37.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Fabrinet for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.8066||+||0.528 * 1.0028||+||0.404 * 1.1335||+||0.892 * 1.0598||+||0.115 * 0.967|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.1629||+||4.679 * 0.0289||-||0.327 * 0.9032|
|This Year (Dec14) TTM:||Last Year (Dec13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $104.1 Mil.|
Revenue was 188.353 + 189.325 + 160.084 + 167.657 = $705.4 Mil.
Gross Profit was 21.061 + 20.506 + 17.775 + 17.283 = $76.6 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $490.4 Mil.
Total Assets was $601.2 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $106.5 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $11.5 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $34.3 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $136.6 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $7.5 Mil.
Net Income was 8.726 + 11.036 + 10.333 + 47.662 = $77.8 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -0.051 + -0.003 + 0.183 + -0.081 = $0.0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 14.768 + 15.833 + 7.946 + 21.8 = $60.3 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $121.8 Mil.
Revenue was 178.562 + 171.551 + 159.934 + 155.557 = $665.6 Mil.
Gross Profit was 20.53 + 18.645 + 17.071 + 16.255 = $72.5 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $403.9 Mil.
Total Assets was $504.4 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $97.3 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $10.1 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $27.8 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $119.4 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $14.4 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(104.096 / 705.419)||/||(121.772 / 665.604)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(20.506 / 665.604)||/||(21.061 / 705.419)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (490.449 + 106.498) / 601.196)||/||(1 - (403.945 + 97.316) / 504.406)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(10.148 / (10.148 + 97.316))||/||(11.526 / (11.526 + 106.498))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(34.261 / 705.419)||/||(27.8 / 665.604)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((7.5 + 136.581) / 601.196)||/||((14.409 + 119.425) / 504.406)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(77.757 - 0.048||-||60.347)||/||601.196|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Fabrinet has a M-score of -2.41 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Fabrinet Annual Data
Fabrinet Quarterly Data