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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Forestar Group Inc was 2.49. The lowest was -4.76. And the median was -2.18.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Forestar Group Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.3009||+||0.528 * -0.8845||+||0.404 * 1.0721||+||0.892 * 0.8554||+||0.115 * 0.3984|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.4332||+||4.679 * -0.2734||-||0.327 * 1.1141|
|This Year (Dec15) TTM:||Last Year (Dec14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $35.7 Mil.|
Revenue was 114.018 + 43.168 + 57.43 + 47.805 = $262.4 Mil.
Gross Profit was 8.341 + -69.572 + -35.009 + 17.289 = $-79.0 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $729.8 Mil.
Total Assets was $980.5 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $91.3 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $45.1 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $27.3 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $50.1 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $389.8 Mil.
Net Income was -6.166 + -164.216 + -34.507 + -8.158 = $-213.0 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 6.328 + 1.222 + 7.205 + 5.138 = $19.9 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 50.166 + 2.473 + 1.253 + -18.766 = $35.1 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $32.1 Mil.
Revenue was 80.316 + 58.84 + 83.013 + 84.605 = $306.8 Mil.
Gross Profit was -6.259 + 19.606 + 33.261 + 35.025 = $81.6 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $792.3 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,258.2 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $275.1 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $41.7 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $22.2 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $73.9 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $432.7 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(35.712 / 262.421)||/||(32.092 / 306.774)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(-69.572 / 306.774)||/||(8.341 / 262.421)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (729.765 + 91.345) / 980.513)||/||(1 - (792.29 + 275.12) / 1258.199)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(41.715 / (41.715 + 275.12))||/||(45.085 / (45.085 + 91.345))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(27.253 / 262.421)||/||(22.23 / 306.774)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((389.782 + 50.079) / 980.513)||/||((432.744 + 73.869) / 1258.199)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-213.047 - 19.893||-||35.126)||/||980.513|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Forestar Group Inc has a M-score of -4.76 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Forestar Group Inc Annual Data
Forestar Group Inc Quarterly Data