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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Frontline Ltd has a M-score of -2.42 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Frontline Ltd was 23.67. The lowest was -6.10. And the median was -2.65.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Frontline Ltd for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1||+||0.528 * 0.9904||+||0.404 * 0.1525||+||0.892 * 0.9107||+||0.115 * 10.307|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.7739||+||4.679 * -0.1334||-||0.327 * 0.9929|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.
|This Year (Jun14) TTM:||Last Year (Jun13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $21.7 Mil.|
Revenue was 118.972 + 169.998 + 143.571 + 126.494 = $559.0 Mil.
Gross Profit was 23.752 + 66.245 + 40.18 + 20.146 = $150.3 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $240.0 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,251.8 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $898.7 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $24.2 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $31.1 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $323.1 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $917.2 Mil.
Net Income was -78.23 + -12.085 + -13.031 + -36.446 = $-139.8 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 7.905 + 0.837 + -11.801 + 6.386 = $3.3 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -0.429 + 21.152 + 6.231 + -3.112 = $23.8 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $0.0 Mil.
Revenue was 163.728 + 125.903 + 197.436 + 126.809 = $613.9 Mil.
Gross Profit was 65.889 + 24.903 + 65.312 + 7.376 = $163.5 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $296.2 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,468.2 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $302.0 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $112.1 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $44.1 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $130.3 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,335.0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(21.676 / 559.035)||/||(0 / 613.876)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(66.245 / 613.876)||/||(23.752 / 559.035)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (240.039 + 898.677) / 1251.802)||/||(1 - (296.22 + 302.042) / 1468.189)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(112.123 / (112.123 + 302.042))||/||(24.241 / (24.241 + 898.677))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(31.09 / 559.035)||/||(44.115 / 613.876)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((917.249 + 323.14) / 1251.802)||/||((1334.963 + 130.281) / 1468.189)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-139.792 - 3.327||-||23.842)||/||1251.802|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Frontline Ltd has a M-score of -2.42 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Frontline Ltd Annual Data
Frontline Ltd Quarterly Data