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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Frontline Ltd was 23.67. The lowest was -3.79. And the median was -2.32.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Frontline Ltd for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 2.2687||+||0.528 * 0.6956||+||0.404 * 0.2394||+||0.892 * 1.8978||+||0.115 * 1.191|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 4.8026||+||4.679 * -0.0107||-||0.327 * 1.7529|
|This Year (Dec15) TTM:||Last Year (Dec14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $57.4 Mil.|
Revenue was 58.267 + 121.513 + 134.777 + 144.377 = $458.9 Mil.
Gross Profit was 13.149 + 66.947 + 78.764 + 82.624 = $241.5 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $467.5 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,886.7 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,149.7 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $52.5 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $45.1 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $242.0 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,195.4 Mil.
Net Income was 88.703 + 17.427 + 17.37 + 31.124 = $154.6 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -28.204 + 11.013 + -3.326 + 6.409 = $-14.1 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 67.856 + 43.121 + 45.698 + 42.972 = $199.6 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $13.3 Mil.
Revenue was -182.763 + 135.619 + 118.972 + 169.998 = $241.8 Mil.
Gross Profit was -42.586 + 41.1 + 23.752 + 66.245 = $88.5 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $436.9 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,501.8 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,089.0 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $31.8 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $4.9 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $237.2 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $473.5 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(57.367 / 458.934)||/||(13.324 / 241.826)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(66.947 / 241.826)||/||(13.149 / 458.934)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (467.465 + 2149.657) / 2886.654)||/||(1 - (436.908 + 1088.969) / 2501.768)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(31.845 / (31.845 + 1088.969))||/||(52.537 / (52.537 + 2149.657))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(45.052 / 458.934)||/||(4.943 / 241.826)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1195.434 + 242.037) / 2886.654)||/||((473.523 + 237.207) / 2501.768)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(154.624 - -14.108||-||199.647)||/||2886.654|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Frontline Ltd has a M-score of -1.91 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Frontline Ltd Annual Data
Frontline Ltd Quarterly Data