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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Frontline Ltd was 23.67. The lowest was -4.23. And the median was -2.59.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Frontline Ltd for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1||+||0.528 * 0.5978||+||0.404 * 0.4255||+||0.892 * 1.2262||+||0.115 * 1.4176|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.3472||+||4.679 * -0.0086||-||0.327 * 1.2454|
|This Year (Mar16) TTM:||Last Year (Mar15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $0.0 Mil.|
Revenue was 227.103 + 58.267 + 121.513 + 185.636 = $592.5 Mil.
Gross Profit was 148.068 + 13.149 + 66.947 + 112.65 = $340.8 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $446.0 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,979.5 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,270.0 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $83.5 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $54.5 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $226.5 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,282.9 Mil.
Net Income was 78.906 + 88.703 + 17.427 + 37.456 = $222.5 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -9.889 + -28.204 + 11.013 + 3.872 = $-23.2 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 121.468 + 67.856 + 43.121 + 39.026 = $271.5 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $0.0 Mil.
Revenue was 93.518 + 135.099 + 135.619 + 118.972 = $483.2 Mil.
Gross Profit was 48.738 + 52.55 + 41.1 + 23.752 = $166.1 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $210.5 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,863.7 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,265.7 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $67.0 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $33.0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $181.4 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $576.8 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(0 / 592.519)||/||(0 / 483.208)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(166.14 / 483.208)||/||(340.814 / 592.519)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (445.952 + 2269.992) / 2979.513)||/||(1 - (210.539 + 1265.654) / 1863.692)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(67.037 / (67.037 + 1265.654))||/||(83.509 / (83.509 + 2269.992))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(54.531 / 592.519)||/||(33.011 / 483.208)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1282.901 + 226.505) / 2979.513)||/||((576.754 + 181.356) / 1863.692)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(222.492 - -23.208||-||271.471)||/||2979.513|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Frontline Ltd has a M-score of -2.85 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Frontline Ltd Annual Data
Frontline Ltd Quarterly Data