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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Frontline Ltd was 23.67. The lowest was -4.41. And the median was -2.64.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Frontline Ltd for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1||+||0.528 * 0.575||+||0.404 * 0.7913||+||0.892 * 0.943||+||0.115 * 1.3846|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 2.1529||+||4.679 * -0.1568||-||0.327 * 0.6569|
|This Year (Sep15) TTM:||Last Year (Sep14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $0.0 Mil.|
Revenue was 121.513 + 134.777 + 144.377 + 135.099 = $535.8 Mil.
Gross Profit was 66.947 + 78.764 + 82.624 + 52.55 = $280.9 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $217.3 Mil.
Total Assets was $851.2 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $542.3 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $57.2 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $77.7 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $159.7 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $464.3 Mil.
Net Income was 17.427 + 17.37 + 31.124 + -12.976 = $52.9 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 11.013 + -3.326 + 6.409 + 25.541 = $39.6 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 43.121 + 45.698 + 42.972 + 14.941 = $146.7 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $0.0 Mil.
Revenue was 135.619 + 118.972 + 169.998 + 143.571 = $568.2 Mil.
Gross Profit was 41.1 + 23.752 + 66.245 + 40.18 = $171.3 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $257.8 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,038.0 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $639.1 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $97.3 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $38.3 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $324.4 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $834.1 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(0 / 535.766)||/||(0 / 568.16)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(78.764 / 568.16)||/||(66.947 / 535.766)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (217.322 + 542.25) / 851.154)||/||(1 - (257.833 + 639.058) / 1038.035)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(97.285 / (97.285 + 639.058))||/||(57.202 / (57.202 + 542.25))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(77.726 / 535.766)||/||(38.285 / 568.16)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((464.336 + 159.695) / 851.154)||/||((834.12 + 324.364) / 1038.035)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(52.945 - 39.637||-||146.732)||/||851.154|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Frontline Ltd has a M-score of -3.62 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Frontline Ltd Annual Data
Frontline Ltd Quarterly Data