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General Dynamics Corp (NYSE:GD)
Beneish M-Score
-3.05 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

General Dynamics Corp has a M-score of -3.05 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

GD' s 10-Year Beneish M-Score Range
Min: -3.13   Max: -0.08
Current: -3.05

-3.13
-0.08

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of General Dynamics Corp was -0.08. The lowest was -3.13. And the median was -2.45.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of General Dynamics Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 0.963+0.528 * 0.8758+0.404 * 0.9262+0.892 * 0.9946+0.115 * 1.011
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 0.9204+4.679 * -0.0858-0.327 * 1.137
=-3.05

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Sep14) TTM:Last Year (Sep13) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $4,181 Mil.
Revenue was 7751 + 7474 + 7324 + 8335 = $30,884 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1477 + 1435 + 1370 + 1493 = $5,775 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $18,169 Mil.
Total Assets was $35,311 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $3,322 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $540 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,036 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $14,670 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,410 Mil.
Net Income was 696 + 541 + 595 + 495 = $2,327 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 1 + 0 + 2 + 4 = $7 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 2504 + 866 + 428 + 1553 = $5,351 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $4,365 Mil.
Revenue was 7735 + 7834 + 7404 + 8078 = $31,051 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1458 + 1475 + 1354 + 798 = $5,085 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $17,118 Mil.
Total Assets was $35,471 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $3,365 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $554 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,224 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $12,065 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,908 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(4181 / 30884) / (4365 / 31051)
=0.13537754 / 0.14057518
=0.963

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(1435 / 31051) / (1477 / 30884)
=0.16376284 / 0.18699003
=0.8758

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (18169 + 3322) / 35311) / (1 - (17118 + 3365) / 35471)
=0.39137946 / 0.42254236
=0.9262

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=30884 / 31051
=0.9946

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(554 / (554 + 3365)) / (540 / (540 + 3322))
=0.14136259 / 0.13982393
=1.011

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(2036 / 30884) / (2224 / 31051)
=0.0659241 / 0.0716241
=0.9204

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((3410 + 14670) / 35311) / ((3908 + 12065) / 35471)
=0.51202175 / 0.45031152
=1.137

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(2327 - 7 - 5351) / 35311
=-0.0858

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

General Dynamics Corp has a M-score of -3.05 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

General Dynamics Corp Annual Data

Dec04Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13
DSRI 0.97141.03061.14360.98431.057
GMI 1.04170.96711.01561.10670.877
AQI 1.0050.98510.98410.94980.9031
SGI 1.09151.01521.00650.96440.9906
DEPI 0.83251.00651.05240.99111.1007
SGAI 1.04140.99011.02691.16260.9221
LVGI 0.91690.96031.03211.04891.0036
TATA -0.0143-0.0112-0.0206-0.084-0.0214
M-score -2.47-2.50-2.45-2.93-2.62

General Dynamics Corp Quarterly Data

Jun12Sep12Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14
DSRI 1.07381.03880.98430.94180.97591.05561.0541.00941.0560.963
GMI 1.02031.04881.10671.10871.11641.08310.87710.87030.86520.8758
AQI 0.99540.9560.94980.91990.91570.90560.90310.94740.94210.9262
SGI 1.00661.0140.96440.96550.96150.9530.99350.99650.98780.9946
DEPI 1.00511.02520.99111.01441.06711.09861.10071.10571.05311.011
SGAI 1.02411.01981.16261.13251.12071.11440.92470.92990.930.9204
LVGI 1.02820.98861.04891.07651.05821.05761.00361.02931.06831.137
TATA -0.0247-0.0422-0.084-0.0857-0.0794-0.0698-0.0214-0.0192-0.0303-0.0858
M-score -2.53-2.62-2.93-2.99-2.91-2.82-2.62-2.64-2.68-3.05
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