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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Guess? Inc was -1.41. The lowest was -3.77. And the median was -2.81.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Guess? Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.8471||+||0.528 * 1.0582||+||0.404 * 1.1352||+||0.892 * 0.9408||+||0.115 * 0.8669|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0642||+||4.679 * -0.0483||-||0.327 * 0.8991|
|This Year (Jan15) TTM:||Last Year (Jan14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $201 Mil.|
Revenue was 696.727 + 589.834 + 608.571 + 522.541 = $2,418 Mil.
Gross Profit was 260.919 + 213.958 + 216.777 + 176.231 = $868 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,111 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,601 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $260 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $85 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $742 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $302 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $6 Mil.
Net Income was 53.929 + 20.788 + 21.954 + -2.101 = $95 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 6.897 + 7.484 + 4.766 + -1.119 = $18 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 158.71 + -35.247 + 30.596 + -0.233 = $154 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $252 Mil.
Revenue was 768.363 + 613.497 + 639.012 + 548.914 = $2,570 Mil.
Gross Profit was 301.949 + 228.227 + 248.532 + 197.426 = $976 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,216 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,764 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $325 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $88 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $741 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $370 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $8 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(200.848 / 2417.673)||/||(252.019 / 2569.786)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(213.958 / 2569.786)||/||(260.919 / 2417.673)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1111.359 + 259.524) / 1601.405)||/||(1 - (1216.086 + 324.606) / 1764.431)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(88.369 / (88.369 + 324.606))||/||(85.06 / (85.06 + 259.524))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(741.973 / 2417.673)||/||(741.105 / 2569.786)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((6.165 + 301.966) / 1601.405)||/||((7.58 + 370.025) / 1764.431)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(94.57 - 18.028||-||153.826)||/||1601.405|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Guess? Inc has a M-score of -2.81 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Guess? Inc Annual Data
Guess? Inc Quarterly Data