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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Gevo Inc has a M-score of 0.98 signals that the company is a manipulator.
During the past 6 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Gevo Inc was 0.06. The lowest was -4.30. And the median was -2.79.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Gevo Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 4.2691||+||0.528 * 1.1716||+||0.404 * 2.0835||+||0.892 * 1.4511||+||0.115 * 1.0904|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.444||+||4.679 * -0.0858||-||0.327 * 1.549|
|This Year (Jun14) TTM:||Last Year (Jun13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $3.09 Mil.|
Revenue was 7.721 + 0.903 + 1.695 + 1.127 = $11.45 Mil.
Gross Profit was -0.548 + -3.777 + -3.353 + -3.619 = $-11.30 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $14.17 Mil.
Total Assets was $101.97 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $83.70 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $3.30 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $22.26 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $13.15 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $44.83 Mil.
Net Income was -17.156 + -11.972 + -17.329 + -15.885 = $-62.34 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -2.33 + 2.551 + -2.347 + 1.611 = $-0.52 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -12.234 + -12.986 + -15.328 + -12.533 = $-53.08 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $0.50 Mil.
Revenue was 1.859 + 3.543 + 1.924 + 0.562 = $7.89 Mil.
Gross Profit was -1.757 + -0.96 + -0.887 + -5.517 = $-9.12 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $46.05 Mil.
Total Assets was $126.48 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $77.99 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $3.37 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $34.54 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $20.28 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $26.15 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(3.085 / 11.446)||/||(0.498 / 7.888)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(-3.777 / 7.888)||/||(-0.548 / 11.446)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (14.171 + 83.704) / 101.972)||/||(1 - (46.046 + 77.994) / 126.479)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(3.368 / (3.368 + 77.994))||/||(3.303 / (3.303 + 83.704))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(22.257 / 11.446)||/||(34.543 / 7.888)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((44.827 + 13.15) / 101.972)||/||((26.146 + 20.279) / 126.479)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-62.342 - -0.515||-||-53.081)||/||101.972|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Gevo Inc has a M-score of 0.98 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Gevo Inc Annual Data
Gevo Inc Quarterly Data