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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 9 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of GigOptix Inc was -2.12. The lowest was -3.50. And the median was -2.85.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of GigOptix Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.1553||+||0.528 * 1.005||+||0.404 * 0.9494||+||0.892 * 1.1779||+||0.115 * 0.9016|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9787||+||4.679 * -0.0948||-||0.327 * 1.1343|
|This Year (Mar15) TTM:||Last Year (Mar14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $8.25 Mil.|
Revenue was 9.06 + 9.04 + 8.484 + 8.037 = $34.62 Mil.
Gross Profit was 5.393 + 5.424 + 5.002 + 4.55 = $20.37 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $32.63 Mil.
Total Assets was $47.51 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2.13 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $3.63 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $10.88 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $6.83 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.00 Mil.
Net Income was -0.636 + -1.094 + -0.786 + -2.044 = $-4.56 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.001 + 0.025 + 0.035 + 0 = $0.06 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -0.327 + 0.814 + -0.074 + -0.531 = $-0.12 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $6.07 Mil.
Revenue was 7.386 + 7.838 + 7.336 + 6.831 = $29.39 Mil.
Gross Profit was 4.26 + 4.515 + 4.351 + 4.253 = $17.38 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $30.99 Mil.
Total Assets was $47.32 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2.96 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $3.89 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $9.43 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $5.99 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.00 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(8.254 / 34.621)||/||(6.065 / 29.391)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(5.424 / 29.391)||/||(5.393 / 34.621)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (32.634 + 2.134) / 47.511)||/||(1 - (30.991 + 2.958) / 47.316)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(3.885 / (3.885 + 2.958))||/||(3.629 / (3.629 + 2.134))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(10.875 / 34.621)||/||(9.433 / 29.391)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 6.826) / 47.511)||/||((0 + 5.993) / 47.316)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-4.56 - 0.061||-||-0.118)||/||47.511|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
GigOptix Inc has a M-score of -2.69 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
GigOptix Inc Annual Data
GigOptix Inc Quarterly Data