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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 6 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Groupon Inc was -2.24. The lowest was -3.75. And the median was -2.91.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Groupon Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.5528||+||0.528 * 1.0977||+||0.404 * 0.8534||+||0.892 * 1.1051||+||0.115 * 0.8867|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9671||+||4.679 * -0.0899||-||0.327 * 1.1363|
|This Year (Sep15) TTM:||Last Year (Sep14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $76 Mil.|
Revenue was 713.595 + 738.395 + 750.356 + 1032.793 = $3,235 Mil.
Gross Profit was 328.912 + 337.007 + 347.406 + 461.986 = $1,475 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,283 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,031 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $203 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $159 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,551 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,283 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $34 Mil.
Net Income was -27.615 + 109.084 + -14.273 + 8.788 = $76 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -7.708 + 3.084 + -19.484 + -10.775 = $-35 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -26.817 + 16.977 + 16.356 + 286.822 = $293 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $125 Mil.
Revenue was 714.269 + 716.211 + 728.415 + 768.447 = $2,927 Mil.
Gross Profit was 355.278 + 366.41 + 365.512 + 378.208 = $1,465 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,250 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,072 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $171 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $109 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,451 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,183 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(76.121 / 3235.139)||/||(124.598 / 2927.342)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(337.007 / 2927.342)||/||(328.912 / 3235.139)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1283.015 + 202.714) / 2030.641)||/||(1 - (1250.08 + 170.534) / 2072.165)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(109.051 / (109.051 + 170.534))||/||(159.209 / (159.209 + 202.714))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(1551.146 / 3235.139)||/||(1451.249 / 2927.342)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((34.398 + 1282.928) / 2030.641)||/||((0 + 1183.056) / 2072.165)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(75.984 - -34.883||-||293.338)||/||2030.641|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Groupon Inc has a M-score of -3.28 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Groupon Inc Annual Data
Groupon Inc Quarterly Data