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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co has a M-score of -2.41 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co was -1.86. The lowest was -3.30. And the median was -2.57.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0458||+||0.528 * 0.8592||+||0.404 * 1.083||+||0.892 * 0.9433||+||0.115 * 1.0154|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.1133||+||4.679 * 0.0319||-||0.327 * 1.0441|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.
|This Year (Jun14) TTM:||Last Year (Jun13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $2,841 Mil.|
Revenue was 4656 + 4469 + 4791 + 5002 = $18,918 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1124 + 951 + 1101 + 1056 = $4,232 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $8,038 Mil.
Total Assets was $16,942 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $7,325 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $736 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,787 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $5,025 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $6,677 Mil.
Net Income was 213 + -51 + 235 + 173 = $570 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -8 + -215 + -8 + -6 = $-237 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 409 + -1543 + 1236 + 164 = $266 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $2,880 Mil.
Revenue was 4894 + 4853 + 5045 + 5264 = $20,056 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1048 + 913 + 945 + 949 = $3,855 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $8,969 Mil.
Total Assets was $17,384 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $6,919 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $707 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,654 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $5,175 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $6,325 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(2841 / 18918)||/||(2880 / 20056)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(951 / 20056)||/||(1124 / 18918)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (8038 + 7325) / 16942)||/||(1 - (8969 + 6919) / 17384)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(707 / (707 + 6919))||/||(736 / (736 + 7325))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(2787 / 18918)||/||(2654 / 20056)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((6677 + 5025) / 16942)||/||((6325 + 5175) / 17384)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(570 - -237||-||266)||/||16942|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co has a M-score of -2.41 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co Annual Data
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co Quarterly Data