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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of HCP Inc was -0.63. The lowest was -3.15. And the median was -2.56.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of HCP Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.2407||+||0.528 * 1.0795||+||0.404 * 0.9228||+||0.892 * 1.1288||+||0.115 * 1.034|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.7494||+||4.679 * -0.04||-||0.327 * 1.1656|
|This Year (Jun15) TTM:||Last Year (Jun14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $46 Mil.|
Revenue was 607.532 + 610.791 + 603.528 + 596.638 = $2,418 Mil.
Gross Profit was 471.19 + 478.76 + 473.098 + 497.039 = $1,920 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,079 Mil.
Total Assets was $22,348 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $12,227 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $473 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $85 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $530 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $11,213 Mil.
Net Income was 164.885 + -240.614 + 196.583 + 247.654 = $369 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 11.116 + 7.988 + 5.066 + 3.111 = $27 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 363.918 + 230.068 + 365.599 + 275.317 = $1,235 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $33 Mil.
Revenue was 536.121 + 529.992 + 530.297 + 546.157 = $2,143 Mil.
Gross Profit was 457.254 + 454.285 + 454.005 + 470.74 = $1,836 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $497 Mil.
Total Assets was $20,144 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $10,815 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $433 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $101 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $407 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $8,674 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(45.824 / 2418.489)||/||(32.719 / 2142.567)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(478.76 / 2142.567)||/||(471.19 / 2418.489)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1078.584 + 12227.284) / 22348.127)||/||(1 - (496.835 + 10814.881) / 20144.169)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(433.29 / (433.29 + 10814.881))||/||(473.157 / (473.157 + 12227.284))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(85.337 / 2418.489)||/||(100.88 / 2142.567)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((11213.358 + 530.222) / 22348.127)||/||((8674.029 + 407.12) / 20144.169)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(368.508 - 27.281||-||1234.902)||/||22348.127|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
HCP Inc has a M-score of -2.33 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
HCP Inc Annual Data
HCP Inc Quarterly Data