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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Hess Corp was 11.70. The lowest was -3.56. And the median was -2.71.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Hess Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.6889||+||0.528 * 1.2916||+||0.404 * 0.822||+||0.892 * 0.6323||+||0.115 * 0.8771|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.3549||+||4.679 * -0.0856||-||0.327 * 0.9612|
|This Year (Mar16) TTM:||Last Year (Mar15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $612 Mil.|
Revenue was 973 + 1474 + 1671 + 1953 = $6,071 Mil.
Gross Profit was 329 + 622 + 778 + 1049 = $2,778 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,945 Mil.
Total Assets was $34,808 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $26,241 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $3,867 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $508 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,193 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $6,498 Mil.
Net Income was -509 + -1821 + -279 + -567 = $-3,176 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 20 + -1318 + 18 + -403 = $-1,683 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -60 + 623 + 282 + 640 = $1,485 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,405 Mil.
Revenue was 1538 + 2557 + 2678 + 2829 = $9,602 Mil.
Gross Profit was 718 + 1497 + 1675 + 1785 = $5,675 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,323 Mil.
Total Assets was $36,101 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $27,208 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $3,454 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $593 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,467 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $5,911 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(612 / 6071)||/||(1405 / 9602)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(622 / 9602)||/||(329 / 6071)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (4945 + 26241) / 34808)||/||(1 - (4323 + 27208) / 36101)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(3454 / (3454 + 27208))||/||(3867 / (3867 + 26241))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(508 / 6071)||/||(593 / 9602)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((6498 + 2193) / 34808)||/||((5911 + 3467) / 36101)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-3176 - -1683||-||1485)||/||34808|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Hess Corp has a M-score of -3.48 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Hess Corp Annual Data
Hess Corp Quarterly Data