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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Harley-Davidson Inc was -0.89. The lowest was -3.67. And the median was -2.63.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Harley-Davidson Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.8463||+||0.528 * 0.9725||+||0.404 * 0.9751||+||0.892 * 1.0199||+||0.115 * 0.9891|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0056||+||4.679 * -0.0262||-||0.327 * 1.0643|
|This Year (Mar15) TTM:||Last Year (Mar14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $280 Mil.|
Revenue was 1672.945 + 1200.157 + 1301.604 + 2000.699 = $6,175 Mil.
Gross Profit was 714.114 + 438.48 + 525.505 + 849.812 = $2,528 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,714 Mil.
Total Assets was $10,264 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $874 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $190 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,161 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,509 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $4,358 Mil.
Net Income was 269.854 + 74.475 + 150.066 + 354.153 = $849 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 174.7 + 179.809 + 396.276 + 367.006 = $1,118 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $325 Mil.
Revenue was 1726.048 + 1190.634 + 1343.718 + 1794.307 = $6,055 Mil.
Gross Profit was 707.634 + 443.6 + 539.805 + 719.205 = $2,410 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,360 Mil.
Total Assets was $9,730 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $823 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $177 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,132 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,844 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,272 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(280.497 / 6175.405)||/||(324.979 / 6054.707)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(438.48 / 6054.707)||/||(714.114 / 6175.405)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (4713.805 + 873.518) / 10263.824)||/||(1 - (4360.471 + 823.061) / 9729.791)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(176.996 / (176.996 + 823.061))||/||(190.372 / (190.372 + 873.518))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(1160.83 / 6175.405)||/||(1131.806 / 6054.707)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((4357.538 + 2508.887) / 10263.824)||/||((3271.648 + 2844.114) / 9729.791)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(848.548 - 0||-||1117.791)||/||10263.824|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Harley-Davidson Inc has a M-score of -2.77 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Harley-Davidson Inc Annual Data
Harley-Davidson Inc Quarterly Data