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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Harley-Davidson Inc has a M-score of -2.56 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Harley-Davidson Inc was -1.34. The lowest was -2.91. And the median was -2.60.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Harley-Davidson Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9754||+||0.528 * 0.9775||+||0.404 * 1.0361||+||0.892 * 1.0572||+||0.115 * 1.0372|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9592||+||4.679 * -0.0267||-||0.327 * 0.9838|
|This Year (Dec13) TTM:||Last Year (Dec12) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $2,035 Mil.|
Revenue was 1190.634 + 1343.718 + 1794.307 + 1571.213 = $5,900 Mil.
Gross Profit was 443.6 + 539.805 + 719.205 + 635.853 = $2,338 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,989 Mil.
Total Assets was $9,405 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $842 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $167 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,127 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,510 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,417 Mil.
Net Income was 75.409 + 162.716 + 271.739 + 224.129 = $734 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 5.859 + 0 + 1.77 + 0 = $8 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 151.99 + 435.426 + 498.166 + -108.489 = $977 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,973 Mil.
Revenue was 1170.86 + 1250.295 + 1729.66 + 1429.691 = $5,581 Mil.
Gross Profit was 432.128 + 492.7 + 675.718 + 561.576 = $2,162 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,051 Mil.
Total Assets was $9,171 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $815 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $169 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,111 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,503 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $4,371 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(2034.751 / 5899.872)||/||(1973.124 / 5580.506)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(539.805 / 5580.506)||/||(443.6 / 5899.872)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (3988.803 + 842.477) / 9405.04)||/||(1 - (4050.936 + 815.464) / 9170.773)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(168.978 / (168.978 + 815.464))||/||(167.072 / (167.072 + 842.477))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(1126.884 / 5899.872)||/||(1111.231 / 5580.506)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((3416.713 + 2509.586) / 9405.04)||/||((4370.544 + 1503.082) / 9170.773)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(733.993 - 7.629||-||977.093)||/||9405.04|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Harley-Davidson Inc has a M-score of -2.56 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Harley-Davidson Inc Annual Data
Harley-Davidson Inc Quarterly Data