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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide Inc was -0.01. The lowest was -5.17. And the median was -2.76.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0778||+||0.528 * 0.9732||+||0.404 * 1.0458||+||0.892 * 0.9785||+||0.115 * 0.7522|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0319||+||4.679 * -0.0482||-||0.327 * 1.3352|
|This Year (Jun15) TTM:||Last Year (Jun14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $675 Mil.|
Revenue was 1481 + 1415 + 1493 + 1493 = $5,882 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1090 + 1016 + 1082 + 1064 = $4,252 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,095 Mil.
Total Assets was $8,053 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,320 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $287 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $3,111 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,408 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,992 Mil.
Net Income was 136 + 99 + 234 + 109 = $578 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 11 + 29 + 28 + -20 = $48 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 305 + 55 + 317 + 241 = $918 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $640 Mil.
Revenue was 1539 + 1458 + 1506 + 1508 = $6,011 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1100 + 1029 + 1051 + 1049 = $4,229 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,922 Mil.
Total Assets was $8,746 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $3,046 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $275 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $3,081 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,942 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,637 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(675 / 5882)||/||(640 / 6011)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1016 / 6011)||/||(1090 / 5882)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (2095 + 2320) / 8053)||/||(1 - (1922 + 3046) / 8746)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(275 / (275 + 3046))||/||(287 / (287 + 2320))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(3111 / 5882)||/||(3081 / 6011)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1992 + 2408) / 8053)||/||((1637 + 1942) / 8746)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(578 - 48||-||918)||/||8053|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide Inc has a M-score of -2.79 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide Inc Annual Data
Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide Inc Quarterly Data