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Beneish M-Score -0.84 higher than -2.22, which implies that it might have manipulated its financial results.
The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Hovnanian Enterprises Inc was -0.44. The lowest was -11.82. And the median was -1.84.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Hovnanian Enterprises Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1||+||0.528 * 1.2465||+||0.404 * 1.9106||+||0.892 * 1.1007||+||0.115 * 1.0254|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9587||+||4.679 * 0.2135||-||0.327 * 0.8598|
|This Year (Jul15) TTM:||Last Year (Jul14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $0 Mil.|
Revenue was 540.613 + 468.949 + 445.714 + 698.394 = $2,154 Mil.
Gross Profit was 82.344 + 62.978 + 70.037 + 119.096 = $334 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,830 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,549 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $46 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $3 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $267 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $763 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,908 Mil.
Net Income was -7.684 + -19.559 + -14.376 + 322.464 = $281 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -1.98 + -0.322 + -0.092 + 2.75 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -76.551 + -60.512 + -195.617 + 68.958 = $-264 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $0 Mil.
Revenue was 551.009 + 449.929 + 364.048 + 591.687 = $1,957 Mil.
Gross Profit was 110.296 + 79.86 + 65.007 + 123.6 = $379 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,586 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,894 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $46 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $4 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $253 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $651 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,656 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(0 / 2153.67)||/||(0 / 1956.673)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(62.978 / 1956.673)||/||(82.344 / 2153.67)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1829.563 + 45.839) / 2549.344)||/||(1 - (1585.746 + 45.96) / 1893.728)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(3.501 / (3.501 + 45.96))||/||(3.399 / (3.399 + 45.839))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(266.69 / 2153.67)||/||(252.733 / 1956.673)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1907.693 + 762.559) / 2549.344)||/||((1656.153 + 650.957) / 1893.728)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(280.845 - 0.356||-||-263.722)||/||2549.344|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Hovnanian Enterprises Inc has a M-score of -0.84 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Hovnanian Enterprises Inc Annual Data
Hovnanian Enterprises Inc Quarterly Data