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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Hewlett-Packard Co was -1.51. The lowest was -3.89. And the median was -2.63.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Hewlett-Packard Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.8904||+||0.528 * 0.9727||+||0.404 * 0.9957||+||0.892 * 0.9684||+||0.115 * 1.0324|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0061||+||4.679 * -0.0381||-||0.327 * 0.9945|
|This Year (Apr15) TTM:||Last Year (Apr14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $12,320 Mil.|
Revenue was 25453 + 26839 + 28406 + 27585 = $108,283 Mil.
Gross Profit was 6108 + 6268 + 6981 + 6611 = $25,968 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $48,883 Mil.
Total Assets was $101,396 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $11,014 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $4,161 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $12,886 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $43,186 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $15,464 Mil.
Net Income was 1011 + 1366 + 1330 + 985 = $4,692 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 1464 + 744 + 2701 + 3647 = $8,556 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $14,288 Mil.
Revenue was 27309 + 28154 + 29131 + 27226 = $111,820 Mil.
Gross Profit was 6605 + 6418 + 6694 + 6367 = $26,084 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $49,883 Mil.
Total Assets was $103,972 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $11,350 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $4,482 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $13,226 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $43,280 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $17,190 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(12320 / 108283)||/||(14288 / 111820)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(6268 / 111820)||/||(6108 / 108283)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (48883 + 11014) / 101396)||/||(1 - (49883 + 11350) / 103972)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(4482 / (4482 + 11350))||/||(4161 / (4161 + 11014))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(12886 / 108283)||/||(13226 / 111820)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((15464 + 43186) / 101396)||/||((17190 + 43280) / 103972)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(4692 - 0||-||8556)||/||101396|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Hewlett-Packard Co has a M-score of -2.80 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Hewlett-Packard Co Annual Data
Hewlett-Packard Co Quarterly Data