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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of H&R Block Inc was 1.53. The lowest was -3.98. And the median was -2.68.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of H&R Block Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9576||+||0.528 * 0.7813||+||0.404 * 0.6115||+||0.892 * 1.255||+||0.115 * 0.7847|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.7708||+||4.679 * -0.0104||-||0.327 * 0.9332|
|This Year (Jan15) TTM:||Last Year (Jan14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $777 Mil.|
Revenue was 509.074 + 134.628 + 133.586 + 2562.99 = $3,340 Mil.
Gross Profit was 114.396 + -87.069 + -77.935 + 1729.788 = $1,679 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,778 Mil.
Total Assets was $4,379 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $309 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $149 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $597 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,471 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $505 Mil.
Net Income was -36.948 + -111.998 + -116.232 + 909.998 = $645 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -6.666 + -2.282 + -0.681 + 17.2 = $8 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -619.623 + -245.992 + -381.585 + 1929.903 = $683 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $647 Mil.
Revenue was 199.77 + 134.34 + 127.195 + 2200.212 = $2,662 Mil.
Gross Profit was -163.767 + -86.524 + -82.858 + 1378.477 = $1,045 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,505 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,515 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $315 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $108 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $617 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,055 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $506 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(777.453 / 3340.278)||/||(646.912 / 2661.517)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(-87.069 / 2661.517)||/||(114.396 / 3340.278)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (2778.319 + 308.805) / 4378.941)||/||(1 - (1504.711 + 314.565) / 3515.287)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(107.778 / (107.778 + 314.565))||/||(148.815 / (148.815 + 308.805))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(596.761 / 3340.278)||/||(616.904 / 2661.517)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((505.46 + 2471.104) / 4378.941)||/||((505.959 + 2054.52) / 3515.287)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(644.82 - 7.571||-||682.703)||/||4378.941|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
H&R Block Inc has a M-score of -2.58 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
H&R Block Inc Annual Data
H&R Block Inc Quarterly Data