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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of H&R Block Inc was 1.53. The lowest was -3.97. And the median was -2.68.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of H&R Block Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.7916||+||0.528 * 0.9714||+||0.404 * 0.7884||+||0.892 * 1.0331||+||0.115 * 0.8254|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9556||+||4.679 * -0.0686||-||0.327 * 0.816|
|This Year (Oct14) TTM:||Last Year (Oct13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $108 Mil.|
Revenue was 134.628 + 133.586 + 2562.99 + 199.77 = $3,031 Mil.
Gross Profit was -87.069 + -77.935 + 1729.788 + -163.767 = $1,401 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,457 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,091 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $318 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $135 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $596 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,076 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $506 Mil.
Net Income was -111.998 + -116.232 + 909.998 + -214.711 = $467 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -2.282 + -0.681 + 17.2 + -9.61 = $5 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -245.992 + -381.585 + 1929.903 + -627.949 = $674 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $132 Mil.
Revenue was 134.34 + 127.195 + 2200.212 + 471.979 = $2,934 Mil.
Gross Profit was -72.723 + -82.858 + 1378.477 + 94.361 = $1,317 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,196 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,275 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $311 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $101 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $603 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,547 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $506 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(107.705 / 3030.974)||/||(131.701 / 2933.726)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(-77.935 / 2933.726)||/||(-87.069 / 3030.974)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1457.381 + 318.225) / 3091.29)||/||(1 - (1195.654 + 311.157) / 3274.513)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(101.234 / (101.234 + 311.157))||/||(134.705 / (134.705 + 318.225))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(595.772 / 3030.974)||/||(603.448 / 2933.726)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((505.588 + 1075.677) / 3091.29)||/||((506.078 + 1546.685) / 3274.513)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(467.057 - 4.627||-||674.377)||/||3091.29|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
H&R Block Inc has a M-score of -3.02 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
H&R Block Inc Annual Data
H&R Block Inc Quarterly Data