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H&R Block Inc (NYSE:HRB)
Beneish M-Score
-3.01 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

H&R Block Inc has a M-score of -3.01 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

HRB' s 10-Year Beneish M-Score Range
Min: -3.38   Max: -0.99
Current: -3.01

-3.38
-0.99

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of H&R Block Inc was -0.99. The lowest was -3.38. And the median was -2.70.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of H&R Block Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 0.8902+0.528 * 0.9696+0.404 * 0.6818+0.892 * 1.0407+0.115 * 0.933
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 0.9998+4.679 * -0.0721-0.327 * 0.9339
=-3.01

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Apr14) TTM:Last Year (Apr13) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $192 Mil.
Revenue was 2562.99 + 199.77 + 134.34 + 127.195 = $3,024 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1729.788 + -163.767 + -86.524 + -82.858 = $1,397 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,114 Mil.
Total Assets was $4,694 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $305 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $116 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $611 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,313 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $506 Mil.
Net Income was 909.998 + -214.711 + -104.943 + -115.187 = $475 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 17.2 + -9.61 + 1.254 + -4.939 = $4 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 1929.903 + -627.949 + -173.631 + -318.742 = $810 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $207 Mil.
Revenue was 2200.212 + 471.979 + 137.263 + 96.489 = $2,906 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1378.477 + 94.361 + -74.748 + -96.935 = $1,301 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,462 Mil.
Total Assets was $4,538 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $268 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $92 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $587 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,012 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $906 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(191.618 / 3024.295) / (206.835 / 2905.943)
=0.06335956 / 0.07117655
=0.8902

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(-163.767 / 2905.943) / (1729.788 / 3024.295)
=0.44775655 / 0.46180647
=0.9696

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (3114.006 + 304.911) / 4693.529) / (1 - (2462.343 + 267.88) / 4537.779)
=0.27156794 / 0.39833496
=0.6818

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=3024.295 / 2905.943
=1.0407

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(92.407 / (92.407 + 267.88)) / (115.604 / (115.604 + 304.911))
=0.25648164 / 0.27491053
=0.933

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(611.083 / 3024.295) / (587.291 / 2905.943)
=0.202058 / 0.20209997
=0.9998

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((505.837 + 2313.116) / 4693.529) / ((905.958 + 2012.205) / 4537.779)
=0.60060415 / 0.64308178
=0.9339

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(475.157 - 3.905 - 809.581) / 4693.529
=-0.0721

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

H&R Block Inc has a M-score of -3.01 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

H&R Block Inc Annual Data

Apr05Apr06Apr07Apr08Apr09Apr10Apr11Apr12Apr13Apr14
DSRI 1.34540.83450.88430.54380.96061.06461.25030.40081.06250.8902
GMI 1.17650.97431.06241.0261.00671.00340.91510.96290.920.9696
AQI 0.97041.23610.83031.18760.960.94761.08720.8820.97080.6818
SGI 0.77081.15431.12491.01630.99930.94880.76010.98261.00421.0407
DEPI 1.50891.0361.06221.14740.98420.93550.94740.94271.17270.933
SGAI 1.06281.11450.85030.91010.82261.02641.10241.18930.94580.9998
LVGI 1.01650.96951.37650.96820.88770.98780.97021.00721.01860.9339
TATA 0.0147-0.02110.017-0.1054-0.1006-0.0225-0.0226-0.0228-0.0151-0.0721
M-score -2.17-2.52-2.52-3.25-2.93-2.60-2.59-3.26-2.52-3.01

H&R Block Inc Quarterly Data

Jan12Apr12Jul12Oct12Jan13Apr13Jul13Oct13Jan14Apr14
DSRI 0.87730.42450.36010.99160.92181.06251.02591.04480.74790.8902
GMI 0.98790.89840.92330.91630.94660.920.93270.9561.05090.9696
AQI 1.12250.8820.98270.96231.14480.97080.881.09710.98690.6818
SGI 0.86110.92760.98090.98050.92111.00421.01631.01240.98341.0407
DEPI 0.89060.94271.00731.16351.15791.17271.1881.2031.20990.933
SGAI 1.16231.1871.14081.05911.04120.94580.9961.02891.08310.9998
LVGI 0.96271.00721.09061.03771.00311.01860.94320.86080.96470.9339
TATA -0.0635-0.0228-0.0164-0.0043-0.0204-0.0151-0.0326-0.0431-0.1277-0.0721
M-score -3.00-3.32-3.26-2.59-2.68-2.52-2.64-2.55-3.28-3.01
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