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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Henry Schein Inc was -1.38. The lowest was -2.99. And the median was -2.52.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Henry Schein Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0365||+||0.528 * 1.0124||+||0.404 * 0.988||+||0.892 * 1.0783||+||0.115 * 0.9944|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.991||+||4.679 * -0.0234||-||0.327 * 1.1062|
|This Year (Sep16) TTM:||Last Year (Sep15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1,368 Mil.|
Revenue was 2865.148 + 2872.63 + 2712.956 + 2850.918 = $11,302 Mil.
Gross Profit was 789.491 + 803.316 + 779.305 + 799.278 = $3,171 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,286 Mil.
Total Assets was $6,634 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $324 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $166 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,371 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,040 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $718 Mil.
Net Income was 133.713 + 120.097 + 113.752 + 129.948 = $498 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -0.199 + 0.268 + 3.137 + 0.193 = $3 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 178.081 + 274.384 + -101.512 + 298.311 = $649 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,224 Mil.
Revenue was 2685.835 + 2629.32 + 2463.646 + 2702.096 = $10,481 Mil.
Gross Profit was 748.908 + 750.678 + 713.395 + 764.464 = $2,977 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,120 Mil.
Total Assets was $6,372 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $312 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $158 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,219 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,797 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $597 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1367.604 / 11301.652)||/||(1223.636 / 10480.897)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(2977.445 / 10480.897)||/||(3171.39 / 11301.652)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (3285.955 + 324.108) / 6633.593)||/||(1 - (3120.173 + 311.891) / 6371.558)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(158.461 / (158.461 + 311.891))||/||(166.065 / (166.065 + 324.108))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(2370.885 / 11301.652)||/||(2218.702 / 10480.897)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((718.024 + 2039.655) / 6633.593)||/||((597.106 + 1797.281) / 6371.558)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(497.51 - 3.399||-||649.264)||/||6633.593|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Henry Schein Inc has a M-score of -2.52 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Henry Schein Inc Annual Data
Henry Schein Inc Quarterly Data