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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Houston American Energy Corp was 668.31. The lowest was -35.01. And the median was -1.98.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Houston American Energy Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.9069||+||0.528 * 1.249||+||0.404 * 2.5956||+||0.892 * 0.4461||+||0.115 * 1.1339|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 2.1058||+||4.679 * -0.3632||-||0.327 * 0.4381|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.
|This Year (Sep16) TTM:||Last Year (Sep15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $0.26 Mil.|
Revenue was 0.04 + 0.034 + 0.048 + 0.089 = $0.21 Mil.
Gross Profit was 0.017 + 0.007 + 0.038 + 0.053 = $0.12 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1.15 Mil.
Total Assets was $4.30 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $3.15 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $0.40 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1.61 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $0.02 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.00 Mil.
Net Income was -0.37 + -0.49 + -0.339 + -1.828 = $-3.03 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + -0.097 = $-0.10 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -0.31 + -0.419 + -0.295 + -0.343 = $-1.37 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $0.31 Mil.
Revenue was 0.124 + 0.114 + 0.102 + 0.133 = $0.47 Mil.
Gross Profit was 0.072 + 0.083 + 0.073 + 0.094 = $0.32 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2.96 Mil.
Total Assets was $7.45 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $4.48 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $0.66 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1.72 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $0.08 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.00 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(0.262 / 0.211)||/||(0.308 / 0.473)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(0.322 / 0.473)||/||(0.115 / 0.211)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1.149 + 3.151) / 4.303)||/||(1 - (2.964 + 4.48) / 7.446)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(0.661 / (0.661 + 4.48))||/||(0.403 / (0.403 + 3.151))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(1.612 / 0.211)||/||(1.716 / 0.473)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 0.02) / 4.303)||/||((0 + 0.079) / 7.446)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-3.027 - -0.097||-||-1.367)||/||4.303|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Houston American Energy Corp has a M-score of -3.05 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Houston American Energy Corp Annual Data
Houston American Energy Corp Quarterly Data