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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Houston American Energy Corp has a M-score of -0.87 signals that the company is a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Houston American Energy Corp was 669.66. The lowest was -34.01. And the median was -1.89.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Houston American Energy Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.0298||+||0.528 * -1.892||+||0.404 * 1.1292||+||0.892 * 5.4607||+||0.115 * 0.5658|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.1135||+||4.679 * -0.0638||-||0.327 * 0.4|
|This Year (Jun14) TTM:||Last Year (Jun13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $0.36 Mil.|
Revenue was 0.067 + 0.106 + 0.143 + 0.17 = $0.49 Mil.
Gross Profit was 0.045 + 0.079 + 0.061 + 0.17 = $0.36 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $6.37 Mil.
Total Assets was $12.49 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $6.12 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $0.07 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2.53 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $0.11 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.00 Mil.
Net Income was -0.684 + -0.535 + -0.575 + -0.526 = $-2.32 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0.018 + 0 = $0.02 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -0.42 + -0.701 + -0.143 + -0.277 = $-1.54 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $2.18 Mil.
Revenue was 0.019 + 0.015 + 0.024 + 0.031 = $0.09 Mil.
Gross Profit was 0.008 + 0.006 + -0.168 + 0.031 = $-0.12 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $11.27 Mil.
Total Assets was $14.10 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2.83 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $0.02 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $4.09 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $0.32 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.00 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(0.355 / 0.486)||/||(2.182 / 0.089)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(0.079 / 0.089)||/||(0.045 / 0.486)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (6.368 + 6.118) / 12.489)||/||(1 - (11.271 + 2.829) / 14.103)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(0.019 / (0.019 + 2.829))||/||(0.073 / (0.073 + 6.118))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(2.533 / 0.486)||/||(4.088 / 0.089)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 0.113) / 12.489)||/||((0 + 0.319) / 14.103)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-2.32 - 0.018||-||-1.541)||/||12.489|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Houston American Energy Corp has a M-score of -0.87 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Houston American Energy Corp Annual Data
Houston American Energy Corp Quarterly Data