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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Illumina Inc was 5.89. The lowest was -4.42. And the median was -2.51.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Illumina Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0101||+||0.528 * 1.0102||+||0.404 * 1.0629||+||0.892 * 1.1384||+||0.115 * 1.15|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0319||+||4.679 * -0.0568||-||0.327 * 0.814|
|This Year (Mar16) TTM:||Last Year (Mar15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $403 Mil.|
Revenue was 571.763 + 591.548 + 550.271 + 539.378 = $2,253 Mil.
Gross Profit was 397.054 + 410.359 + 387.539 + 376.365 = $1,571 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,074 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,794 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $385 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $130 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $559 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $481 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,023 Mil.
Net Income was 89.587 + 104.477 + 118.177 + 102.247 = $414 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 1.452 + -1.282 + -1.811 + -0.9 = $-3 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 39.738 + 240.378 + 180.994 + 171.445 = $633 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $350 Mil.
Revenue was 538.565 + 512.379 + 480.63 + 447.568 = $1,979 Mil.
Gross Profit was 375.027 + 384.937 + 333.941 + 300.54 = $1,394 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,060 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,499 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $281 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $114 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $476 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $710 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $994 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(402.514 / 2252.96)||/||(350.044 / 1979.142)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1394.445 / 1979.142)||/||(1571.317 / 2252.96)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (2073.798 + 385.253) / 3793.706)||/||(1 - (2060.281 + 280.628) / 3499.093)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(114.269 / (114.269 + 280.628))||/||(129.536 / (129.536 + 385.253))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(559.053 / 2252.96)||/||(475.919 / 1979.142)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1022.646 + 481.228) / 3793.706)||/||((993.777 + 710.251) / 3499.093)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(414.488 - -2.541||-||632.555)||/||3793.706|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Illumina Inc has a M-score of -2.51 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Illumina Inc Annual Data
Illumina Inc Quarterly Data