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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of International Shipholding Corp was 7476.90. The lowest was -5.22. And the median was -2.70.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of International Shipholding Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0153||+||0.528 * 0.9463||+||0.404 * 1.287||+||0.892 * 0.9618||+||0.115 * 0.8813|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9485||+||4.679 * -0.1241||-||0.327 * 1.2038|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.
|This Year (Mar15) TTM:||Last Year (Mar14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $28.7 Mil.|
Revenue was 68.026 + 70.978 + 74.41 + 76.752 = $290.2 Mil.
Gross Profit was 15.815 + 32.437 + 13.81 + 14.456 = $76.5 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $76.6 Mil.
Total Assets was $590.6 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $371.2 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $29.1 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $20.4 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $70.2 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $208.1 Mil.
Net Income was -4.501 + -48.253 + -2.565 + -0.664 = $-56.0 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -2.498 + 0.526 + 0.793 + 0.45 = $-0.7 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 1.905 + 8.326 + 3.608 + 4.219 = $18.1 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $29.3 Mil.
Revenue was 72.694 + 76.169 + 77.938 + 74.897 = $301.7 Mil.
Gross Profit was 15.261 + 30.73 + 14.627 + 14.67 = $75.3 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $73.0 Mil.
Total Assets was $642.8 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $449.0 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $30.8 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $22.4 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $68.3 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $183.3 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(28.653 / 290.166)||/||(29.343 / 301.698)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(32.437 / 301.698)||/||(15.815 / 290.166)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (76.569 + 371.155) / 590.56)||/||(1 - (72.975 + 448.991) / 642.754)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(30.756 / (30.756 + 448.991))||/||(29.117 / (29.117 + 371.155))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(20.428 / 290.166)||/||(22.394 / 301.698)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((208.087 + 70.217) / 590.56)||/||((183.299 + 68.324) / 642.754)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-55.983 - -0.729||-||18.058)||/||590.56|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
International Shipholding Corp has a M-score of -3.06 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
International Shipholding Corp Annual Data
International Shipholding Corp Quarterly Data