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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of ITT Corp was 1.60. The lowest was -3.69. And the median was -2.42.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of ITT Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9667||+||0.528 * 0.9814||+||0.404 * 0.9693||+||0.892 * 1.0632||+||0.115 * 1.0208|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9771||+||4.679 * -0.0161||-||0.327 * 0.9574|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.
|This Year (Dec14) TTM:||Last Year (Dec13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $477 Mil.|
Revenue was 660 + 657.1 + 663 + 674.5 = $2,655 Mil.
Gross Profit was 216.9 + 219.9 + 214.8 + 214.8 = $866 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,636 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,632 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $444 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $88 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $520 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $775 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $7 Mil.
Net Income was 33.7 + 80.3 + 38.3 + 32.2 = $185 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 1.7 + -1.4 + 0 + -2.2 = $-2 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 112.8 + 52.1 + 93.4 + -13.6 = $245 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $464 Mil.
Revenue was 645.5 + 634 + 609.2 + 608.2 = $2,497 Mil.
Gross Profit was 208.6 + 202.9 + 197.8 + 190.5 = $800 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,666 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,740 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $426 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $87 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $500 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $833 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $9 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(476.8 / 2654.6)||/||(463.9 / 2496.9)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(219.9 / 2496.9)||/||(216.9 / 2654.6)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1636.2 + 443.9) / 3631.5)||/||(1 - (1665.5 + 426.2) / 3740.2)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(86.9 / (86.9 + 426.2))||/||(88.3 / (88.3 + 443.9))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(519.5 / 2654.6)||/||(500.1 / 2496.9)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((7 + 775.4) / 3631.5)||/||((9.1 + 832.6) / 3740.2)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(184.5 - -1.9||-||244.7)||/||3631.5|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
ITT Corp has a M-score of -2.53 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
ITT Corp Annual Data
ITT Corp Quarterly Data