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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Invesco Ltd was -0.54. The lowest was -3.48. And the median was -2.44.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Invesco Ltd for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0546||+||0.528 * 1||+||0.404 * 1.2521||+||0.892 * 0.9634||+||0.115 * 1.0101|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0071||+||4.679 * -0.0047||-||0.327 * 1.062|
|This Year (Mar16) TTM:||Last Year (Mar15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $654 Mil.|
Revenue was 1148.7 + 1239.7 + 1273.5 + 1318.1 = $4,980 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1148.7 + 1239.7 + 1273.5 + 1318.1 = $4,980 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,280 Mil.
Total Assets was $22,658 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $429 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $96 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $3,685 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $8,598 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $5,134 Mil.
Net Income was 161 + 201.9 + 249.3 + 257.3 = $870 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -24.4 + -16.8 + -11.8 + -11.4 = $-64 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -68.8 + 497.9 + 97.1 + 514.8 = $1,041 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $643 Mil.
Revenue was 1291.6 + 1276.7 + 1311 + 1289.9 = $5,169 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1291.6 + 1276.7 + 1311 + 1289.9 = $5,169 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $7,674 Mil.
Total Assets was $21,961 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $393 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $89 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $3,799 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $5,453 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $7,080 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(653.5 / 4980)||/||(643.2 / 5169.2)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1239.7 / 5169.2)||/||(1148.7 / 4980)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (4280 + 428.9) / 22658.2)||/||(1 - (7674 + 393.1) / 21961.2)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(88.7 / (88.7 + 393.1))||/||(95.6 / (95.6 + 428.9))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(3685.3 / 4980)||/||(3798.5 / 5169.2)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((5134.4 + 8598.1) / 22658.2)||/||((7080.3 + 5452.8) / 21961.2)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(869.5 - -64.4||-||1041)||/||22658.2|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Invesco Ltd has a M-score of -2.40 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Invesco Ltd Annual Data
Invesco Ltd Quarterly Data