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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of John Wiley & Sons Inc was -2.20. The lowest was -3.53. And the median was -2.82.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of John Wiley & Sons Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.1342||+||0.528 * 0.9946||+||0.404 * 0.8926||+||0.892 * 0.9437||+||0.115 * 1.0375|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.029||+||4.679 * -0.0512||-||0.327 * 1.1282|
|This Year (Jan16) TTM:||Last Year (Jan15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $236 Mil.|
Revenue was 436.393 + 433.362 + 422.981 + 441.646 = $1,734 Mil.
Gross Profit was 316.167 + 316.598 + 303.252 + 324.802 = $1,261 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $897 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,114 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $208 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $116 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $983 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $827 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $815 Mil.
Net Income was 35.518 + 43.6 + 32.457 + 46.897 = $158 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 1.431 + 0.038 + -0.08 + -1.086 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 243.13 + -2.437 + -124.082 + 200.971 = $318 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $220 Mil.
Revenue was 465.905 + 476.972 + 437.917 + 457.089 = $1,838 Mil.
Gross Profit was 341.66 + 342.431 + 313.864 + 330.916 = $1,329 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $614 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,894 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $188 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $111 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,012 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $764 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $588 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(235.806 / 1734.382)||/||(220.311 / 1837.883)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(316.598 / 1837.883)||/||(316.167 / 1734.382)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (896.941 + 207.515) / 3114.408)||/||(1 - (613.922 + 187.643) / 2894.008)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(111.422 / (111.422 + 187.643))||/||(116.273 / (116.273 + 207.515))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(982.6 / 1734.382)||/||(1011.907 / 1837.883)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((814.728 + 826.936) / 3114.408)||/||((588.111 + 764.061) / 2894.008)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(158.472 - 0.303||-||317.582)||/||3114.408|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
John Wiley & Sons Inc has a M-score of -2.74 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
John Wiley & Sons Inc Annual Data
John Wiley & Sons Inc Quarterly Data