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John Wiley & Sons Inc (NYSE:JW.A)
Beneish M-Score
-2.74 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

John Wiley & Sons Inc has a M-score of -2.74 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

JW.A' s Beneish M-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: -3.53   Max: -2.2
Current: -2.74

-3.53
-2.2

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of John Wiley & Sons Inc was -2.20. The lowest was -3.53. And the median was -2.82.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of John Wiley & Sons Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 1.1176+0.528 * 0.9929+0.404 * 1.0234+0.892 * 0.9451+0.115 * 1.0366
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 1.0496+4.679 * -0.0706-0.327 * 0.9604
=-2.74

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Jul16) TTM:Last Year (Jul15) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $214 Mil.
Revenue was 404.285 + 434.301 + 436.393 + 433.362 = $1,708 Mil.
Gross Profit was 291.116 + 325.103 + 316.167 + 316.598 = $1,249 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $574 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,743 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $215 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $117 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $988 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $593 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $653 Mil.
Net Income was 31.014 + 34.207 + 35.518 + 43.6 = $144 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.221 + -0.916 + 1.431 + 0.038 = $1 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -136.712 + 233.346 + 243.13 + -2.437 = $337 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $203 Mil.
Revenue was 422.981 + 441.646 + 465.905 + 476.972 = $1,808 Mil.
Gross Profit was 303.252 + 324.802 + 341.66 + 342.431 = $1,312 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $707 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,982 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $199 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $115 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $996 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $660 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $750 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(213.968 / 1708.341) / (202.57 / 1807.504)
=0.125249 / 0.11207167
=1.1176

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(1312.145 / 1807.504) / (1248.984 / 1708.341)
=0.72594307 / 0.7311093
=0.9929

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (574.076 + 214.74) / 2743.262) / (1 - (706.939 + 198.889) / 2981.6)
=0.71245328 / 0.69619399
=1.0234

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=1708.341 / 1807.504
=0.9451

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(114.586 / (114.586 + 198.889)) / (116.978 / (116.978 + 214.74))
=0.36553473 / 0.35264291
=1.0366

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(987.783 / 1708.341) / (995.764 / 1807.504)
=0.57821184 / 0.55090556
=1.0496

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((653 + 593.131) / 2743.262) / ((750.473 + 659.834) / 2981.6)
=0.45425154 / 0.47300342
=0.9604

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(144.339 - 0.774 - 337.327) / 2743.262
=-0.0706

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

John Wiley & Sons Inc has a M-score of -2.74 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

John Wiley & Sons Inc Annual Data

Apr07Apr08Apr09Apr10Apr11Apr12Apr13Apr14Apr15Apr16
DSRI 1.0760.77720.87420.87550.99560.99630.95450.91830.95751.2019
GMI 1.01980.9671.00310.9910.99280.99350.99640.97660.98440.994
AQI 1.34760.98690.95380.98370.98360.97781.01040.96591.01031.0112
SGI 1.18271.35530.96281.05441.02561.02310.98771.00821.02660.9477
DEPI 1.08431.23840.98231.0211.00581.0380.92970.9650.95461.0535
SGAI 0.99761.02340.99490.98521.01830.98961.02451.03051.00981.0444
LVGI 1.22750.91631.06120.87340.84230.98511.08390.97291.04160.9811
TATA -0.0475-0.0504-0.0905-0.0696-0.0829-0.065-0.068-0.061-0.0599-0.0701
M-score -2.38-2.58-3.09-2.84-2.81-2.77-2.89-2.86-2.80-2.66

John Wiley & Sons Inc Quarterly Data

Apr14Jul14Oct14Jan15Apr15Jul15Oct15Jan16Apr16Jul16
DSRI 0.91831.07281.10271.02750.95750.9960.9311.13421.20191.1176
GMI 0.97660.980.98060.97980.98440.98680.98510.99460.9940.9929
AQI 0.96591.00220.99111.0231.01030.94040.95350.89261.01121.0234
SGI 1.00821.02331.02891.04191.02661.0030.96390.94370.94770.9451
DEPI 0.9650.99030.99290.97390.95460.95791.011.03751.05351.0366
SGAI 1.03051.0231.01911.01551.00981.00871.01921.0291.04441.0496
LVGI 0.97290.99461.06841.05991.04161.05871.05351.12820.98110.9604
TATA -0.061-0.0467-0.0496-0.064-0.0599-0.0535-0.0551-0.0512-0.0701-0.0706
M-score -2.86-2.62-2.63-2.74-2.80-2.79-2.88-2.74-2.66-2.74
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