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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Coca-Cola Co has a M-score of -2.60 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Coca-Cola Co was -2.25. The lowest was -3.02. And the median was -2.62.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Coca-Cola Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0955||+||0.528 * 0.9912||+||0.404 * 1.0327||+||0.892 * 0.9714||+||0.115 * 1.0119|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.002||+||4.679 * -0.0385||-||0.327 * 1.0303|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.
|This Year (Jun14) TTM:||Last Year (Jun13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $5,870 Mil.|
Revenue was 12574 + 10576 + 11040 + 12030 = $46,220 Mil.
Gross Profit was 7755 + 6493 + 6725 + 7237 = $28,210 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $33,871 Mil.
Total Assets was $95,489 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $14,918 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,997 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $19,605 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $32,629 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $18,643 Mil.
Net Income was 2595 + 1619 + 1710 + 2447 = $8,371 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 177 + -170 + 119 + 862 = $988 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 3404 + 1066 + 2830 + 3756 = $11,056 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $5,516 Mil.
Revenue was 12749 + 11035 + 11455 + 12340 = $47,579 Mil.
Gross Profit was 7760 + 6711 + 6827 + 7487 = $28,785 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $32,572 Mil.
Total Assets was $89,511 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $14,549 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,974 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $20,141 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $32,469 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $14,179 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(5870 / 46220)||/||(5516 / 47579)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(6493 / 47579)||/||(7755 / 46220)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (33871 + 14918) / 95489)||/||(1 - (32572 + 14549) / 89511)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(1974 / (1974 + 14549))||/||(1997 / (1997 + 14918))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(19605 / 46220)||/||(20141 / 47579)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((18643 + 32629) / 95489)||/||((14179 + 32469) / 89511)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(8371 - 988||-||11056)||/||95489|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Coca-Cola Co has a M-score of -2.60 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Coca-Cola Co Annual Data
Coca-Cola Co Quarterly Data