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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Coca-Cola Co was -2.42. The lowest was -2.90. And the median was -2.64.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Coca-Cola Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0352||+||0.528 * 0.9977||+||0.404 * 0.9983||+||0.892 * 0.9451||+||0.115 * 0.9418|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9756||+||4.679 * -0.0214||-||0.327 * 1.0495|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.
|This Year (Dec16) TTM:||Last Year (Dec15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $3,856 Mil.|
Revenue was 9409 + 10633 + 11539 + 10282 = $41,863 Mil.
Gross Profit was 5615 + 6502 + 7068 + 6213 = $25,398 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $34,010 Mil.
Total Assets was $87,270 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $10,635 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,787 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $9,439 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $26,532 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $29,684 Mil.
Net Income was 550 + 1046 + 3448 + 1483 = $6,527 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -762 + -825 + 1438 + -250 = $-399 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 2073 + 2903 + 3216 + 604 = $8,796 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $3,941 Mil.
Revenue was 10000 + 11427 + 12156 + 10711 = $44,294 Mil.
Gross Profit was 5946 + 6850 + 7408 + 6608 = $26,812 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $33,395 Mil.
Total Assets was $89,996 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $12,571 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,970 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $10,237 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $26,929 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $28,311 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(3856 / 41863)||/||(3941 / 44294)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(26812 / 44294)||/||(25398 / 41863)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (34010 + 10635) / 87270)||/||(1 - (33395 + 12571) / 89996)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(1970 / (1970 + 12571))||/||(1787 / (1787 + 10635))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(9439 / 41863)||/||(10237 / 44294)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((29684 + 26532) / 87270)||/||((28311 + 26929) / 89996)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(6527 - -399||-||8796)||/||87270|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Coca-Cola Co has a M-score of -2.62 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Coca-Cola Co Annual Data
Coca-Cola Co Quarterly Data