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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Kratos Defense & Security Solutions Inc was 1.96. The lowest was -6.00. And the median was -2.53.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Kratos Defense & Security Solutions Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.104||+||0.528 * 0.9549||+||0.404 * 0.9471||+||0.892 * 0.8612||+||0.115 * 1.1043|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.1392||+||4.679 * 0.0593||-||0.327 * 0.8758|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.
|This Year (Dec15) TTM:||Last Year (Dec14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $206.8 Mil.|
Revenue was $657.1 Mil.
Gross Profit was $161.8 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $320.4 Mil.
Total Assets was $903.3 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $56.2 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $25.5 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $150.7 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $172.4 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $444.1 Mil.
Net Income was $19.8 Mil.
Non Operating Income was $-4.1 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was $-29.7 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $217.5 Mil.
Revenue was $763.0 Mil.
Gross Profit was $179.4 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $373.2 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,131.2 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $61.6 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $32.4 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $153.6 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $226.1 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $655.4 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(206.8 / 657.1)||/||(217.5 / 763)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(179.4 / 763)||/||(161.8 / 657.1)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (320.4 + 56.2) / 903.3)||/||(1 - (373.2 + 61.6) / 1131.2)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(32.4 / (32.4 + 61.6))||/||(25.5 / (25.5 + 56.2))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(150.7 / 657.1)||/||(153.6 / 763)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((444.1 + 172.4) / 903.3)||/||((655.4 + 226.1) / 1131.2)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(19.8 - -4.1||-||-29.7)||/||903.3|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Kratos Defense & Security Solutions Inc has a M-score of -2.25 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Kratos Defense & Security Solutions Inc Annual Data