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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Lydall Inc has a M-score of -2.75 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Lydall Inc was -2.02. The lowest was -3.18. And the median was -2.67.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Lydall Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.1011||+||0.528 * 0.9796||+||0.404 * 1.0245||+||0.892 * 1.3078||+||0.115 * 1.143|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0575||+||4.679 * -0.0792||-||0.327 * 1.8461|
|This Year (Sep14) TTM:||Last Year (Sep13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $91.7 Mil.|
Revenue was 134.227 + 148.793 + 125.226 + 99.894 = $508.1 Mil.
Gross Profit was 28.564 + 34.653 + 26.199 + 20.329 = $109.7 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $229.3 Mil.
Total Assets was $375.5 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $113.7 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $16.2 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $78.5 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $71.0 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $60.5 Mil.
Net Income was 4.158 + 8.24 + 3.716 + 4.133 = $20.2 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.508 + -0.299 + -0.055 + -0.023 = $0.1 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 17.125 + 16.234 + -2.86 + 19.372 = $49.9 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $63.7 Mil.
Revenue was 97.995 + 101.051 + 99.029 + 90.468 = $388.5 Mil.
Gross Profit was 20.494 + 23.037 + 21.365 + 17.304 = $82.2 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $172.5 Mil.
Total Assets was $272.8 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $77.2 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $12.8 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $56.7 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $50.5 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1.2 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(91.741 / 508.14)||/||(63.708 / 388.543)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(34.653 / 388.543)||/||(28.564 / 508.14)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (229.266 + 113.71) / 375.548)||/||(1 - (172.54 + 77.152) / 272.785)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(12.812 / (12.812 + 77.152))||/||(16.184 / (16.184 + 113.71))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(78.478 / 508.14)||/||(56.743 / 388.543)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((60.488 + 70.989) / 375.548)||/||((1.201 + 50.531) / 272.785)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(20.247 - 0.131||-||49.871)||/||375.548|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Lydall Inc has a M-score of -2.75 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Lydall Inc Annual Data
Lydall Inc Quarterly Data