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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of LHC Group Inc was -1.80. The lowest was -3.43. And the median was -2.66.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of LHC Group Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.8921||+||0.528 * 1.0027||+||0.404 * 0.9921||+||0.892 * 1.1344||+||0.115 * 0.8884|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9499||+||4.679 * -0.0701||-||0.327 * 0.7912|
|This Year (Jun15) TTM:||Last Year (Jun14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $100.1 Mil.|
Revenue was 200.172 + 193.079 + 193.371 + 187.713 = $774.3 Mil.
Gross Profit was 83.533 + 78.653 + 80.579 + 74.591 = $317.4 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $153.1 Mil.
Total Assets was $509.0 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $34.8 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $11.0 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $239.4 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $76.4 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $40.7 Mil.
Net Income was 8.95 + 6.805 + 5.534 + 6.174 = $27.5 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0.106 + 0.235 = $0.3 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 25.347 + 22.604 + 5.206 + 9.655 = $62.8 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $98.9 Mil.
Revenue was 188.867 + 163.681 + 165.28 + 164.748 = $682.6 Mil.
Gross Profit was 77.34 + 66.347 + 70.039 + 66.782 = $280.5 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $148.3 Mil.
Total Assets was $497.6 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $32.9 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $8.9 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $222.2 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $74.8 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $69.9 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(100.124 / 774.335)||/||(98.932 / 682.576)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(78.653 / 682.576)||/||(83.533 / 774.335)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (153.136 + 34.765) / 509.045)||/||(1 - (148.268 + 32.929) / 497.625)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(8.908 / (8.908 + 32.929))||/||(10.959 / (10.959 + 34.765))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(239.387 / 774.335)||/||(222.155 / 682.576)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((40.66 + 76.443) / 509.045)||/||((69.896 + 74.797) / 497.625)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(27.463 - 0.341||-||62.812)||/||509.045|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
LHC Group Inc has a M-score of -2.73 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
LHC Group Inc Annual Data
LHC Group Inc Quarterly Data