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Lorillard Inc (NYSE:LO)
Beneish M-Score
-2.23 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

Lorillard Inc has a M-score of -2.23 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

LO' s 10-Year Beneish M-Score Range
Min: -3.55   Max: -1.7
Current: -2.23

-3.55
-1.7

During the past 11 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Lorillard Inc was -1.70. The lowest was -3.55. And the median was -2.58.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of Lorillard Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 1.0468+0.528 * 1.0223+0.404 * 1.8085+0.892 * 1.0438+0.115 * 0.7619
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 1.2067+4.679 * -0.0184-0.327 * 1.0698
=-2.23

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Mar14) TTM:Last Year (Mar13) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $59 Mil.
Revenue was 1592 + 1742 + 1827 + 1804 = $6,965 Mil.
Gross Profit was 619 + 659 + 669 + 678 = $2,625 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,016 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,912 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $311 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $58 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $660 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,119 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,561 Mil.
Net Income was 271 + 282 + 258 + 313 = $1,124 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 703 + 457 + 553 + -517 = $1,196 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $54 Mil.
Revenue was 1577 + 1704 + 1661 + 1731 = $6,673 Mil.
Gross Profit was 713 + 644 + 602 + 612 = $2,571 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,145 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,749 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $294 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $40 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $524 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,987 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,101 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(59 / 6965) / (54 / 6673)
=0.00847093 / 0.00809231
=1.0468

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(659 / 6673) / (619 / 6965)
=0.38528398 / 0.37688442
=1.0223

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (3016 + 311) / 3912) / (1 - (3145 + 294) / 3749)
=0.14953988 / 0.08268872
=1.8085

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=6965 / 6673
=1.0438

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(40 / (40 + 294)) / (58 / (58 + 311))
=0.11976048 / 0.15718157
=0.7619

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(660 / 6965) / (524 / 6673)
=0.09475951 / 0.0785254
=1.2067

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((3561 + 2119) / 3912) / ((3101 + 1987) / 3749)
=1.45194274 / 1.35716191
=1.0698

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(1124 - 0 - 1196) / 3912
=-0.0184

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

Lorillard Inc has a M-score of -2.23 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Lorillard Inc Annual Data

Dec04Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13
DSRI 12.29910.28140.64791.35851.1080.73480.6535
GMI 1.01440.99461.15591.01770.98771.00750.9193
AQI 0.68690.54471.00360.58721.691.56221.4481
SGI 1.0571.05921.24481.13361.091.02431.0494
DEPI 1.20970.6251.0760.94491.01741.06930.8471
SGAI 1.03690.86380.8260.96191.03961.0911.2574
LVGI 1.09531.20041.45791.21231.39931.0231.0621
TATA -0.0081-0.0487-0.0365-0.0188-0.0223-0.0209-0.0034
M-score 7.80-3.59-2.78-2.35-2.27-2.58-2.71

Lorillard Inc Quarterly Data

Dec11Mar12Jun12Sep12Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14
DSRI 1.10820.97120.87321.12250.7350.67861.54761.91240.65341.0468
GMI 0.9880.99620.99450.97421.00780.93380.91990.9290.91911.0223
AQI 1.691.66972.33921.47751.56221.60170.70641.13721.44811.8085
SGI 1.08981.05711.03441.03161.02411.03351.03851.05771.04951.0438
DEPI 1.01741.04911.04671.04661.06931.0131.0051.02370.84710.7619
SGAI 1.03721.02391.04581.06261.0891.10231.08031.20211.25971.2067
LVGI 1.39931.32241.20231.05351.0230.99360.98261.08221.06211.0698
TATA -0.0229-0.00720.0392-0.0093-0.02090.0067-0.0168-0.0158-0.0031-0.0184
M-score -2.27-2.32-1.91-2.23-2.58-2.52-2.19-1.70-2.71-2.23
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