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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Southwest Airlines Co was 168.65. The lowest was -3.36. And the median was -2.68.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Southwest Airlines Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9542||+||0.528 * 0.8803||+||0.404 * 1.0172||+||0.892 * 1.0731||+||0.115 * 0.9896|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0864||+||4.679 * -0.0237||-||0.327 * 1.0831|
|This Year (Mar16) TTM:||Last Year (Mar15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $511 Mil.|
Revenue was 4826 + 4977 + 5318 + 5111 = $20,232 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3351 + 3565 + 3760 + 3508 = $14,184 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,574 Mil.
Total Assets was $22,241 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $15,964 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,062 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $6,503 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $8,253 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,355 Mil.
Net Income was 511 + 536 + 584 + 608 = $2,239 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -114 + -162 + -272 + -88 = $-636 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 1616 + 324 + 836 + 627 = $3,403 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $499 Mil.
Revenue was 4414 + 4628 + 4800 + 5011 = $18,853 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2963 + 2886 + 2806 + 2980 = $11,635 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,963 Mil.
Total Assets was $21,163 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $14,607 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $961 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $5,578 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $6,903 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,416 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(511 / 20232)||/||(499 / 18853)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(11635 / 18853)||/||(14184 / 20232)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (4574 + 15964) / 22241)||/||(1 - (4963 + 14607) / 21163)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(961 / (961 + 14607))||/||(1062 / (1062 + 15964))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(6503 / 20232)||/||(5578 / 18853)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((2355 + 8253) / 22241)||/||((2416 + 6903) / 21163)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(2239 - -636||-||3403)||/||22241|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Southwest Airlines Co has a M-score of -2.67 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Southwest Airlines Co Annual Data
Southwest Airlines Co Quarterly Data