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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of MasterCard Inc was -1.29. The lowest was -3.56. And the median was -2.55.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of MasterCard Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0634||+||0.528 * 1||+||0.404 * 1.1566||+||0.892 * 1.0404||+||0.115 * 0.9971|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.1552||+||4.679 * -0.0212||-||0.327 * 1.2098|
|This Year (Mar16) TTM:||Last Year (Mar15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1,186 Mil.|
Revenue was 2446 + 2517 + 2530 + 2390 = $9,883 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2446 + 2517 + 2530 + 2390 = $9,883 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $10,606 Mil.
Total Assets was $15,905 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $669 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $374 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $4,387 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $6,440 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,333 Mil.
Net Income was 959 + 890 + 977 + 921 = $3,747 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 9 + -70 + -2 + 7 = $-56 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 1008 + 1039 + 1272 + 821 = $4,140 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,072 Mil.
Revenue was 2230 + 2411 + 2490 + 2368 = $9,499 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2230 + 2411 + 2490 + 2368 = $9,499 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $10,348 Mil.
Total Assets was $14,633 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $602 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $335 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $3,650 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $5,937 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,495 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1186 / 9883)||/||(1072 / 9499)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(2517 / 9499)||/||(2446 / 9883)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (10606 + 669) / 15905)||/||(1 - (10348 + 602) / 14633)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(335 / (335 + 602))||/||(374 / (374 + 669))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(4387 / 9883)||/||(3650 / 9499)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((3333 + 6440) / 15905)||/||((1495 + 5937) / 14633)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(3747 - -56||-||4140)||/||15905|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
MasterCard Inc has a M-score of -2.52 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
MasterCard Inc Annual Data
MasterCard Inc Quarterly Data