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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Matthews International Corporation was -2.03. The lowest was -3.29. And the median was -2.52.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Matthews International Corporation for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0165||+||0.528 * 0.9571||+||0.404 * 1.0015||+||0.892 * 1.0456||+||0.115 * 1.0511|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0056||+||4.679 * -0.0354||-||0.327 * 1.1417|
|This Year (Jun16) TTM:||Last Year (Jun15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $285 Mil.|
Revenue was 382.061 + 367.176 + 354.232 + 368.338 = $1,472 Mil.
Gross Profit was 145.297 + 137.76 + 126.567 + 141.574 = $551 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $600 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,127 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $222 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $65 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $439 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $266 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $898 Mil.
Net Income was 23.915 + 14.357 + 4.614 + 16.974 = $60 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.46 + -0.192 + -0.874 + -1.356 = $-2 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 46.514 + 41.872 + 10.019 + 38.725 = $137 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $268 Mil.
Revenue was 364.752 + 349.394 + 343.584 + 349.832 = $1,408 Mil.
Gross Profit was 135.436 + 127.695 + 124.67 + 116.708 = $505 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $549 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,930 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $199 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $62 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $418 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $249 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $676 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(285.184 / 1471.807)||/||(268.306 / 1407.562)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(504.509 / 1407.562)||/||(551.198 / 1471.807)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (599.718 + 222.32) / 2126.822)||/||(1 - (548.868 + 198.992) / 1930.382)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(61.915 / (61.915 + 198.992))||/||(64.827 / (64.827 + 222.32))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(439.297 / 1471.807)||/||(417.774 / 1407.562)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((898.177 + 265.917) / 2126.822)||/||((676.418 + 249.014) / 1930.382)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(59.86 - -1.962||-||137.13)||/||2126.822|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Matthews International Corporation has a M-score of -2.65 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Matthews International Corporation Annual Data
Matthews International Corporation Quarterly Data