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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of 3M Co was -2.34. The lowest was -3.08. And the median was -2.66.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of 3M Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0631||+||0.528 * 0.9828||+||0.404 * 0.9457||+||0.892 * 0.9945||+||0.115 * 0.9775|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9939||+||4.679 * -0.049||-||0.327 * 1.0637|
|This Year (Dec16) TTM:||Last Year (Dec15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $4,392 Mil.|
Revenue was 7329 + 7709 + 7662 + 7409 = $30,109 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3613 + 3862 + 3863 + 3731 = $15,069 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $11,726 Mil.
Total Assets was $32,906 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $8,516 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,474 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $6,111 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $6,219 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $10,723 Mil.
Net Income was 1155 + 1329 + 1291 + 1275 = $5,050 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 2209 + 1908 + 1285 + 1260 = $6,662 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $4,154 Mil.
Revenue was 7298 + 7712 + 7686 + 7578 = $30,274 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3471 + 3835 + 3828 + 3757 = $14,891 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $10,986 Mil.
Total Assets was $32,883 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $8,515 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,435 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $6,182 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $7,118 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $8,799 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(4392 / 30109)||/||(4154 / 30274)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(14891 / 30274)||/||(15069 / 30109)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (11726 + 8516) / 32906)||/||(1 - (10986 + 8515) / 32883)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(1435 / (1435 + 8515))||/||(1474 / (1474 + 8516))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(6111 / 30109)||/||(6182 / 30274)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((10723 + 6219) / 32906)||/||((8799 + 7118) / 32883)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(5050 - 0||-||6662)||/||32906|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
3M Co has a M-score of -2.71 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
3M Co Annual Data
3M Co Quarterly Data