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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of 3M Co was -2.35. The lowest was -3.08. And the median was -2.66.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of 3M Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9667||+||0.528 * 0.9899||+||0.404 * 0.9715||+||0.892 * 1.0308||+||0.115 * 0.9615|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9831||+||4.679 * -0.0534||-||0.327 * 1.1548|
|This Year (Dec14) TTM:||Last Year (Dec13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $4,238 Mil.|
Revenue was 7719 + 8137 + 8134 + 7831 = $31,821 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3692 + 3932 + 3950 + 3800 = $15,374 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $11,765 Mil.
Total Assets was $31,269 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $8,489 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,408 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $6,469 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $5,998 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $6,790 Mil.
Net Income was 1179 + 1303 + 1267 + 1207 = $4,956 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 2183 + 1711 + 1640 + 1092 = $6,626 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $4,253 Mil.
Revenue was 7569 + 7916 + 7752 + 7634 = $30,871 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3593 + 3768 + 3739 + 3665 = $14,765 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $12,733 Mil.
Total Assets was $33,550 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $8,652 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,371 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $6,384 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $7,498 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $4,384 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(4238 / 31821)||/||(4253 / 30871)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(3932 / 30871)||/||(3692 / 31821)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (11765 + 8489) / 31269)||/||(1 - (12733 + 8652) / 33550)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(1371 / (1371 + 8652))||/||(1408 / (1408 + 8489))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(6469 / 31821)||/||(6384 / 30871)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((6790 + 5998) / 31269)||/||((4384 + 7498) / 33550)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(4956 - 0||-||6626)||/||31269|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
3M Co has a M-score of -2.80 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
3M Co Annual Data
3M Co Quarterly Data