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3M Co (NYSE:MMM)
Beneish M-Score
-2.71 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

3M Co has a M-score of -2.71 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

MMM' s Beneish M-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: -3.36   Max: -2.47
Current: -2.71

-3.36
-2.47

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of 3M Co was -2.47. The lowest was -3.36. And the median was -2.77.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of 3M Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 1.0097+0.528 * 0.9796+0.404 * 1.1201+0.892 * 0.9692+0.115 * 1.0137
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 0.9977+4.679 * -0.0388-0.327 * 1.22
=-2.71

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Sep15) TTM:Last Year (Sep14) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $4,610 Mil.
Revenue was 7712 + 7686 + 7578 + 7719 = $30,695 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3835 + 3828 + 3757 + 3692 = $15,112 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $11,608 Mil.
Total Assets was $33,258 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $8,470 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,388 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $6,238 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $7,032 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $8,974 Mil.
Net Income was 1296 + 1300 + 1199 + 1179 = $4,974 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 1664 + 1338 + 1080 + 2183 = $6,265 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $4,711 Mil.
Revenue was 8137 + 8134 + 7831 + 7569 = $31,671 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3932 + 3950 + 3800 + 3593 = $15,275 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $12,681 Mil.
Total Assets was $32,776 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $8,499 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,415 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $6,451 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $7,705 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $5,225 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(4610 / 30695) / (4711 / 31671)
=0.15018733 / 0.14874807
=1.0097

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(3828 / 31671) / (3835 / 30695)
=0.48230242 / 0.49232774
=0.9796

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (11608 + 8470) / 33258) / (1 - (12681 + 8499) / 32776)
=0.39629563 / 0.35379546
=1.1201

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=30695 / 31671
=0.9692

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(1415 / (1415 + 8499)) / (1388 / (1388 + 8470))
=0.14272746 / 0.14079935
=1.0137

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(6238 / 30695) / (6451 / 31671)
=0.20322528 / 0.20368792
=0.9977

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((8974 + 7032) / 33258) / ((5225 + 7705) / 32776)
=0.48126766 / 0.39449597
=1.22

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(4974 - 0 - 6265) / 33258
=-0.0388

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

3M Co has a M-score of -2.71 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

3M Co Annual Data

Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14Dec15
DSRI 1.00931.01560.921.11160.96470.96321.03991.01450.9667
GMI 1.03941.02011.01880.98790.98981.02390.98850.99420.9899
AQI 0.79321.10771.07720.96141.0191.04760.94591.0350.9715
SGI 1.0831.06711.0330.91511.15311.11061.00991.03231.0308
DEPI 0.97031.10280.97651.01121.06370.96041.0420.97420.9615
SGAI 1.01010.92771.01251.02240.96841.0140.97931.01340.9831
LVGI 1.23170.96611.12080.86420.92730.92051.04361.07241.1548
TATA 0.0006-0.0072-0.0416-0.0641-0.0361-0.0317-0.0253-0.0345-0.0534
M-score -2.54-2.35-2.72-2.73-2.51-2.51-2.59-2.62-2.80

3M Co Quarterly Data

Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14Dec14Mar15Jun15Sep15Dec15
DSRI 1.00521.01451.00671.00850.99370.96670.94350.97221.00971.0303
GMI 1.00240.99420.99130.98750.98420.98990.98750.98310.97960.9822
AQI 1.01141.0351.03991.0281.00130.97150.88620.85641.12011.1468
SGI 1.03661.03231.03381.0391.0321.03081.01610.98950.96920.9514
DEPI 1.00550.97420.98450.98380.96290.96150.95850.98571.01371.3093
SGAI 1.0051.01341.01270.99990.98550.98310.98020.98590.99771.0045
LVGI 0.98351.07241.1131.10721.20821.15481.06611.18411.221.1861
TATA -0.0302-0.0345-0.0351-0.0315-0.0475-0.0534-0.0544-0.0424-0.0388-0.0485
M-score -2.57-2.62-2.64-2.62-2.76-2.80-2.85-2.84-2.71-2.70
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