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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Morningstar Inc was -2.20. The lowest was -3.03. And the median was -2.61.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Morningstar Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.012||+||0.528 * 1.0133||+||0.404 * 1.0187||+||0.892 * 1.0291||+||0.115 * 0.9761|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.896||+||4.679 * -0.0835||-||0.327 * 1.097|
|This Year (Mar16) TTM:||Last Year (Mar15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $148.1 Mil.|
Revenue was 192.1 + 201.6 + 195.3 + 202.1 = $791.1 Mil.
Gross Profit was 106.8 + 116.7 + 111.9 + 118.9 = $454.3 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $400.4 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,032.7 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $134.0 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $65.9 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $200.1 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $323.8 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
Net Income was 28.7 + 37.3 + 33.5 + 32.2 = $131.7 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.3 + 0.6 + 1.2 + 0.5 = $2.6 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 11.4 + 52.4 + 75.6 + 75.9 = $215.3 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $142.2 Mil.
Revenue was 189.8 + 196.4 + 193.1 + 189.4 = $768.7 Mil.
Gross Profit was 111.1 + 115.2 + 113.1 + 107.9 = $447.3 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $418.5 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,025.8 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $121.4 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $57.6 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $217.0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $293.2 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(148.1 / 791.1)||/||(142.2 / 768.7)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(116.7 / 768.7)||/||(106.8 / 791.1)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (400.4 + 134) / 1032.7)||/||(1 - (418.5 + 121.4) / 1025.8)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(57.6 / (57.6 + 121.4))||/||(65.9 / (65.9 + 134))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(200.1 / 791.1)||/||(217 / 768.7)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 323.8) / 1032.7)||/||((0 + 293.2) / 1025.8)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(131.7 - 2.6||-||215.3)||/||1032.7|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Morningstar Inc has a M-score of -2.84 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Morningstar Inc Annual Data
Morningstar Inc Quarterly Data