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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
MeadWestvaco Corp has a M-score of -2.03 signals that the company is a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of MeadWestvaco Corp was -1.25. The lowest was -3.08. And the median was -2.62.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of MeadWestvaco Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0738||+||0.528 * 0.9756||+||0.404 * 1.2113||+||0.892 * 1.0155||+||0.115 * 0.9436|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9018||+||4.679 * 0.0485||-||0.327 * 0.8355|
|This Year (Mar14) TTM:||Last Year (Mar13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $735 Mil.|
Revenue was 1322 + 1177 + 1434 + 1434 = $5,367 Mil.
Gross Profit was 247 + 160 + 322 + 263 = $992 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,926 Mil.
Total Assets was $9,755 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $3,646 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $386 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $631 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,037 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,849 Mil.
Net Income was 31 + 677 + 80 + 71 = $859 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 13 + 44 + 8 + 5 = $70 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -208 + 177 + 148 + 199 = $316 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $674 Mil.
Revenue was 1311 + 1156 + 1395 + 1423 = $5,285 Mil.
Gross Profit was 196 + 132 + 300 + 325 = $953 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,952 Mil.
Total Assets was $8,805 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $3,736 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $371 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $689 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,033 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,085 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(735 / 5367)||/||(674 / 5285)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(160 / 5285)||/||(247 / 5367)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1926 + 3646) / 9755)||/||(1 - (1952 + 3736) / 8805)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(371 / (371 + 3736))||/||(386 / (386 + 3646))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(631 / 5367)||/||(689 / 5285)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1849 + 1037) / 9755)||/||((2085 + 1033) / 8805)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(859 - 70||-||316)||/||9755|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
MeadWestvaco Corp has a M-score of -2.03 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
MeadWestvaco Corp Annual Data
MeadWestvaco Corp Quarterly Data