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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Natures Sunshine Products Inc was -1.70. The lowest was -3.44. And the median was -2.57.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Natures Sunshine Products Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9689||+||0.528 * 0.9991||+||0.404 * 1.0835||+||0.892 * 1.0176||+||0.115 * 0.9849|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.997||+||4.679 * 0.021||-||0.327 * 1.1083|
|This Year (Sep16) TTM:||Last Year (Sep15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $7.2 Mil.|
Revenue was 85.441 + 89.366 + 82.402 + 79.994 = $337.2 Mil.
Gross Profit was 63.929 + 66.288 + 60.382 + 58.241 = $248.8 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $110.2 Mil.
Total Assets was $214.9 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $72.9 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $4.8 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $235.2 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $62.6 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
Net Income was 4.155 + 2.568 + 2.069 + 3.693 = $12.5 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.02 + -0.622 + 1.559 + -0.025 = $0.9 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -1.401 + 3.601 + 2.862 + 1.984 = $7.0 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $7.3 Mil.
Revenue was 79.586 + 81.247 + 83.878 + 86.663 = $331.4 Mil.
Gross Profit was 58.943 + 60.179 + 61.997 + 63.195 = $244.3 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $104.8 Mil.
Total Assets was $196.7 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $65.1 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $4.2 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $231.8 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $51.7 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(7.216 / 337.203)||/||(7.319 / 331.374)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(244.314 / 331.374)||/||(248.84 / 337.203)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (110.201 + 72.921) / 214.899)||/||(1 - (104.759 + 65.083) / 196.683)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(4.224 / (4.224 + 65.083))||/||(4.81 / (4.81 + 72.921))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(235.194 / 337.203)||/||(231.828 / 331.374)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 62.637) / 214.899)||/||((0 + 51.727) / 196.683)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(12.485 - 0.932||-||7.046)||/||214.899|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Natures Sunshine Products Inc has a M-score of -2.40 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Natures Sunshine Products Inc Annual Data
Natures Sunshine Products Inc Quarterly Data