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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Nabors Industries Ltd was -1.54. The lowest was -3.86. And the median was -2.57.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Nabors Industries Ltd for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9287||+||0.528 * 0.9035||+||0.404 * 2.4644||+||0.892 * 0.5568||+||0.115 * 0.9693|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.1649||+||4.679 * -0.0943||-||0.327 * 0.9828|
|This Year (Dec15) TTM:||Last Year (Dec14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $785 Mil.|
Revenue was 693.685 + 812.431 + 863.37 + 1422.178 = $3,792 Mil.
Gross Profit was 248.555 + 294.257 + 374.848 + 502.568 = $1,420 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,476 Mil.
Total Assets was $9,538 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $7,028 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $972 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $324 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,006 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,655 Mil.
Net Income was -163.654 + -295.834 + -36.821 + 123.634 = $-373 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -124.568 + -259.731 + -1.338 + 55.842 = $-330 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 251.545 + 87.607 + 210.234 + 307.17 = $857 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,518 Mil.
Revenue was 1785.003 + 1813.1 + 1623.471 + 1588.153 = $6,810 Mil.
Gross Profit was 590.159 + 631.114 + 556.976 + 526.414 = $2,305 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,742 Mil.
Total Assets was $11,863 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $8,599 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,148 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $500 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,567 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $4,332 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(784.671 / 3791.664)||/||(1517.503 / 6809.727)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(294.257 / 6809.727)||/||(248.555 / 3791.664)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1475.897 + 7027.802) / 9537.84)||/||(1 - (2741.874 + 8599.125) / 11862.923)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(1148.459 / (1148.459 + 8599.125))||/||(972.411 / (972.411 + 7027.802))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(324.328 / 3791.664)||/||(500.036 / 6809.727)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((3655.2 + 1006.499) / 9537.84)||/||((4331.84 + 1567.475) / 11862.923)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-372.675 - -329.795||-||856.556)||/||9537.84|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Nabors Industries Ltd has a M-score of -2.87 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Nabors Industries Ltd Annual Data
Nabors Industries Ltd Quarterly Data