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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 12 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of NovaBay Pharmaceuticals Inc was 454.23. The lowest was -10000000.00. And the median was -2.82.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of NovaBay Pharmaceuticals Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.1618||+||0.528 * 0.907||+||0.404 * 0.617||+||0.892 * 3.2969||+||0.115 * 1.0912|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.474||+||4.679 * -0.3012||-||0.327 * 2.5734|
|This Year (Jun16) TTM:||Last Year (Jun15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1.49 Mil.|
Revenue was 2.663 + 1.719 + 1.635 + 1.2 = $7.22 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2.184 + 1.108 + 1.044 + 0.931 = $5.27 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $6.57 Mil.
Total Assets was $7.01 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $0.37 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $0.15 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $19.22 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $4.37 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.52 Mil.
Net Income was -2.69 + -5.077 + -4.204 + -5.242 = $-17.21 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -0.483 + -0.453 + 1.944 + 0.108 = $1.12 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -2.66 + -4.932 + -4.489 + -4.138 = $-16.22 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $0.39 Mil.
Revenue was 1.008 + 0.538 + 0.491 + 0.152 = $2.19 Mil.
Gross Profit was 0.755 + 0.39 + 0.194 + 0.11 = $1.45 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $9.65 Mil.
Total Assets was $10.17 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $0.38 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $0.17 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $12.30 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2.76 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.00 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1.49 / 7.217)||/||(0.389 / 2.189)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1.449 / 2.189)||/||(5.267 / 7.217)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (6.574 + 0.366) / 7.005)||/||(1 - (9.646 + 0.375) / 10.174)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(0.173 / (0.173 + 0.375))||/||(0.149 / (0.149 + 0.366))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(19.22 / 7.217)||/||(12.298 / 2.189)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0.524 + 4.368) / 7.005)||/||((0 + 2.761) / 10.174)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-17.213 - 1.116||-||-16.219)||/||7.005|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
NovaBay Pharmaceuticals Inc has a M-score of -2.31 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
NovaBay Pharmaceuticals Inc Annual Data
NovaBay Pharmaceuticals Inc Quarterly Data