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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
NCR Corp has a M-score of -2.51 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of NCR Corp was -2.09. The lowest was -3.08. And the median was -2.55.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of NCR Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9832||+||0.528 * 0.8976||+||0.404 * 1.2111||+||0.892 * 1.0653||+||0.115 * 0.8963|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9032||+||4.679 * -0.0127||-||0.327 * 1.1419|
|This Year (Sep14) TTM:||Last Year (Sep13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1,413 Mil.|
Revenue was 1647 + 1658 + 1518 + 1670 = $6,493 Mil.
Gross Profit was 404 + 480 + 416 + 530 = $1,830 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,212 Mil.
Total Assets was $8,610 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $398 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $270 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $917 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,008 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,660 Mil.
Net Income was 15 + 90 + 53 + 198 = $356 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -14 + -3 + -7 + -11 = $-35 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 124 + 80 + 31 + 265 = $500 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,349 Mil.
Revenue was 1508 + 1535 + 1410 + 1642 = $6,095 Mil.
Gross Profit was 415 + 426 + 369 + 332 = $1,542 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,242 Mil.
Total Assets was $6,878 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $338 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $192 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $953 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,753 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,212 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1413 / 6493)||/||(1349 / 6095)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(480 / 6095)||/||(404 / 6493)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (3212 + 398) / 8610)||/||(1 - (3242 + 338) / 6878)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(192 / (192 + 338))||/||(270 / (270 + 398))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(917 / 6493)||/||(953 / 6095)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((3660 + 2008) / 8610)||/||((2212 + 1753) / 6878)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(356 - -35||-||500)||/||8610|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
NCR Corp has a M-score of -2.51 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
NCR Corp Annual Data
NCR Corp Quarterly Data