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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc. was -0.66. The lowest was -9.15. And the median was -2.57.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc. for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.7709||+||0.528 * 1.0086||+||0.404 * 0.954||+||0.892 * 1.0282||+||0.115 * 1.0066|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0244||+||4.679 * -0.0311||-||0.327 * 1.0758|
|This Year (Mar15) TTM:||Last Year (Mar14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $344 Mil.|
Revenue was 858 + 920 + 818 + 865 = $3,461 Mil.
Gross Profit was 507 + 518 + 497 + 523 = $2,045 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,688 Mil.
Total Assets was $12,242 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $281 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $136 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,107 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,440 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,306 Mil.
Net Income was 9 + 86 + 123 + 101 = $319 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 14 + -49 + 0 + 0 = $-35 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 231 + 280 + 24 + 200 = $735 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $434 Mil.
Revenue was 898 + 849 + 805 + 814 = $3,366 Mil.
Gross Profit was 529 + 520 + 506 + 451 = $2,006 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,519 Mil.
Total Assets was $12,978 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $266 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $130 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,051 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,578 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,084 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(344 / 3461)||/||(434 / 3366)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(518 / 3366)||/||(507 / 3461)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (3688 + 281) / 12242)||/||(1 - (3519 + 266) / 12978)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(130 / (130 + 266))||/||(136 / (136 + 281))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(1107 / 3461)||/||(1051 / 3366)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((2306 + 3440) / 12242)||/||((2084 + 3578) / 12978)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(319 - -35||-||735)||/||12242|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc. has a M-score of -2.85 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc. Annual Data
NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc. Quarterly Data