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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of National Financial Partners Corporation was 0.00. The lowest was 0.00. And the median was 0.00.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of National Financial Partners Corporation for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0877||+||0.528 * 0.9681||+||0.404 * 0.9704||+||0.892 * 1.0356||+||0.115 * 0.9544|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.064||+||4.679 * -0.0679||-||0.327 * 1.0355|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.
|This Year (Mar13) TTM:||Last Year (Mar12) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $128 Mil.|
Revenue was 263.471 + 300.135 + 252.036 + 255.436 = $1,071 Mil.
Gross Profit was 182.457 + 215.097 + 175.867 + 176.463 = $750 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $339 Mil.
Total Assets was $889 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $29 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $46 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $624 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $183 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $222 Mil.
Net Income was 4.151 + 19.403 + 0.051 + 4.866 = $28 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 21.174 + 14.543 + 33.599 + 19.519 = $89 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $114 Mil.
Revenue was 254.131 + 289.162 + 251.531 + 239.435 = $1,034 Mil.
Gross Profit was 171.981 + 195.266 + 171.234 + 162.547 = $701 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $306 Mil.
Total Assets was $856 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $32 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $45 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $567 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $178 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $199 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(127.982 / 1071.078)||/||(113.618 / 1034.259)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(701.028 / 1034.259)||/||(749.884 / 1071.078)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (338.944 + 28.865) / 889.335)||/||(1 - (306.419 + 32.142) / 855.678)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(45.413 / (45.413 + 32.142))||/||(45.82 / (45.82 + 28.865))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(624.261 / 1071.078)||/||(566.52 / 1034.259)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((221.688 + 183.339) / 889.335)||/||((198.669 + 177.676) / 855.678)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(28.471 - 0||-||88.835)||/||889.335|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
National Financial Partners Corporation has a M-score of -2.74 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
National Financial Partners Corporation Annual Data
National Financial Partners Corporation Quarterly Data