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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 7 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Nielsen NV was -2.43. The lowest was -2.72. And the median was -2.51.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Nielsen NV for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9472||+||0.528 * 0.9873||+||0.404 * 0.9908||+||0.892 * 1.0232||+||0.115 * 0.9583|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9681||+||4.679 * -0.0367||-||0.327 * 1.0953|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.
|This Year (Jun15) TTM:||Last Year (Jun14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1,227 Mil.|
Revenue was 1559 + 1458 + 1633 + 1572 = $6,222 Mil.
Gross Profit was 911 + 836 + 980 + 924 = $3,651 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,114 Mil.
Total Assets was $15,465 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $508 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $575 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,892 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,633 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $7,142 Mil.
Net Income was 114 + 63 + 161 + 91 = $429 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -6 + -26 + -39 + -51 = $-122 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 251 + 75 + 401 + 392 = $1,119 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,266 Mil.
Revenue was 1594 + 1489 + 1611 + 1387 = $6,081 Mil.
Gross Profit was 917 + 847 + 945 + 814 = $3,523 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,987 Mil.
Total Assets was $15,556 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $530 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $549 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,910 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,503 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $6,556 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1227 / 6222)||/||(1266 / 6081)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(836 / 6081)||/||(911 / 6222)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (2114 + 508) / 15465)||/||(1 - (1987 + 530) / 15556)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(549 / (549 + 530))||/||(575 / (575 + 508))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(1892 / 6222)||/||(1910 / 6081)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((7142 + 1633) / 15465)||/||((6556 + 1503) / 15556)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(429 - -122||-||1119)||/||15465|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Nielsen NV has a M-score of -2.72 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Nielsen NV Annual Data
Nielsen NV Quarterly Data