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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of NRG Energy Inc was -1.25. The lowest was -3.90. And the median was -2.52.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of NRG Energy Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.1973||+||0.528 * 0.869||+||0.404 * 0.9693||+||0.892 * 0.8417||+||0.115 * 1.0675|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0722||+||4.679 * -0.0825||-||0.327 * 1.0383|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.
|This Year (Dec16) TTM:||Last Year (Dec15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1,166 Mil.|
Revenue was 2532 + 3952 + 2638 + 3229 = $12,351 Mil.
Gross Profit was 715 + 1159 + 882 + 1040 = $3,796 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $6,395 Mil.
Total Assets was $30,355 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $17,912 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,507 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,101 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $4,382 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $18,006 Mil.
Net Income was -987 + 402 + -271 + 82 = $-774 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -123 + -33 + -61 + -124 = $-341 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 339 + 860 + 319 + 554 = $2,072 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,157 Mil.
Revenue was 3020 + 4431 + 3397 + 3826 = $14,674 Mil.
Gross Profit was 795 + 1397 + 963 + 764 = $3,919 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $7,391 Mil.
Total Assets was $32,882 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $18,732 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,692 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,220 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $4,375 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $18,983 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1166 / 12351)||/||(1157 / 14674)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(3919 / 14674)||/||(3796 / 12351)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (6395 + 17912) / 30355)||/||(1 - (7391 + 18732) / 32882)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(1692 / (1692 + 18732))||/||(1507 / (1507 + 17912))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(1101 / 12351)||/||(1220 / 14674)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((18006 + 4382) / 30355)||/||((18983 + 4375) / 32882)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-774 - -341||-||2072)||/||30355|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
NRG Energy Inc has a M-score of -2.92 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
NRG Energy Inc Annual Data
NRG Energy Inc Quarterly Data