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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Norfolk Southern Corp was 1.94. The lowest was -4.29. And the median was -2.60.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Norfolk Southern Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9058||+||0.528 * 0.9869||+||0.404 * 1.008||+||0.892 * 1.0273||+||0.115 * 1.005|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.982||+||4.679 * -0.0314||-||0.327 * 0.9357|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.
|This Year (Mar15) TTM:||Last Year (Mar14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1,032 Mil.|
Revenue was 2567 + 2870 + 3023 + 3042 = $11,502 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1634 + 1845 + 1962 + 1972 = $7,413 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,115 Mil.
Total Assets was $32,775 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $27,829 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $964 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $4,235 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,103 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $8,429 Mil.
Net Income was 310 + 511 + 559 + 562 = $1,942 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 21 + 31 + 32 + 18 = $102 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 605 + 506 + 909 + 849 = $2,869 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,109 Mil.
Revenue was 2689 + 2881 + 2824 + 2802 = $11,196 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1644 + 1875 + 1814 + 1788 = $7,121 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,130 Mil.
Total Assets was $32,700 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $26,768 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $932 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $4,198 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,321 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $8,909 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1032 / 11502)||/||(1109 / 11196)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1845 / 11196)||/||(1634 / 11502)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (2115 + 27829) / 32775)||/||(1 - (3130 + 26768) / 32700)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(932 / (932 + 26768))||/||(964 / (964 + 27829))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(4235 / 11502)||/||(4198 / 11196)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((8429 + 2103) / 32775)||/||((8909 + 2321) / 32700)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(1942 - 102||-||2869)||/||32775|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Norfolk Southern Corp has a M-score of -2.67 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Norfolk Southern Corp Annual Data
Norfolk Southern Corp Quarterly Data