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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Nuance Communications Inc was 10000000.00. The lowest was -10000000.00. And the median was -2.60.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Nuance Communications Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9193||+||0.528 * 0.9816||+||0.404 * 1.0542||+||0.892 * 1.0104||+||0.115 * 0.9963|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9334||+||4.679 * -0.1174||-||0.327 * 1.142|
|This Year (Mar16) TTM:||Last Year (Mar15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $366 Mil.|
Revenue was 478.733 + 486.115 + 504.119 + 477.939 = $1,947 Mil.
Gross Profit was 273.233 + 280.206 + 292.615 + 273.248 = $1,119 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $768 Mil.
Total Assets was $5,257 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $189 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $232 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $572 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $772 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,132 Mil.
Net Income was -7.046 + -12.065 + -11.027 + -39.39 = $-70 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.006 + -6.801 + -0.182 + -18.375 = $-25 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 159.922 + 141.141 + 151.607 + 120.339 = $573 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $394 Mil.
Revenue was 475.059 + 474.019 + 502.314 + 475.504 = $1,927 Mil.
Gross Profit was 272.083 + 263.634 + 292.251 + 259.411 = $1,087 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,080 Mil.
Total Assets was $5,650 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $186 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $226 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $606 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $595 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,138 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(365.996 / 1946.906)||/||(394.054 / 1926.896)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1087.379 / 1926.896)||/||(1119.302 / 1946.906)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (767.573 + 189.414) / 5256.636)||/||(1 - (1079.994 + 185.985) / 5649.827)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(226.379 / (226.379 + 185.985))||/||(232.451 / (232.451 + 189.414))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(571.555 / 1946.906)||/||(606.044 / 1926.896)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((2131.572 + 772.109) / 5256.636)||/||((2137.738 + 595.097) / 5649.827)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-69.528 - -25.352||-||573.009)||/||5256.636|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Nuance Communications Inc has a M-score of -3.12 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Nuance Communications Inc Annual Data
Nuance Communications Inc Quarterly Data