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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Nuance Communications Inc was 10000000.00. The lowest was -10000000.00. And the median was -2.60.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Nuance Communications Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0237||+||0.528 * 1.0082||+||0.404 * 0.9205||+||0.892 * 1.0037||+||0.115 * 1.0463|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9681||+||4.679 * -0.0923||-||0.327 * 1.1999|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.
|This Year (Dec16) TTM:||Last Year (Dec15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $385 Mil.|
Revenue was 487.658 + 506.204 + 477.851 + 478.733 = $1,950 Mil.
Gross Profit was 275.248 + 295.68 + 269.973 + 273.233 = $1,114 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,574 Mil.
Total Assets was $6,195 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $178 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $231 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $560 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,698 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,961 Mil.
Net Income was -23.929 + 18.474 + -11.821 + -7.046 = $-24 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -0.61 + -1.206 + -0.489 + 0.006 = $-2 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 124.9 + 138.868 + 125.864 + 159.922 = $550 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $374 Mil.
Revenue was 486.115 + 504.119 + 477.939 + 475.059 = $1,943 Mil.
Gross Profit was 280.517 + 292.924 + 273.539 + 272.083 = $1,119 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,035 Mil.
Total Assets was $5,531 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $187 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $270 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $576 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $603 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,120 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(384.639 / 1950.446)||/||(374.333 / 1943.232)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1119.063 / 1943.232)||/||(1114.134 / 1950.446)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1573.57 + 178.22) / 6195.13)||/||(1 - (1034.559 + 186.719) / 5530.628)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(269.66 / (269.66 + 186.719))||/||(231.205 / (231.205 + 178.22))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(559.554 / 1950.446)||/||(575.859 / 1943.232)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1961.23 + 1698.32) / 6195.13)||/||((2119.825 + 602.978) / 5530.628)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-24.322 - -2.299||-||549.554)||/||6195.13|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Nuance Communications Inc has a M-score of -2.97 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Nuance Communications Inc Annual Data
Nuance Communications Inc Quarterly Data