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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Nu Skin Enterprises Inc was -1.31. The lowest was -3.39. And the median was -2.60.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Nu Skin Enterprises Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.4491||+||0.528 * 1.0117||+||0.404 * 0.9807||+||0.892 * 0.7204||+||0.115 * 0.7854|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0065||+||4.679 * -0.0388||-||0.327 * 0.9492|
|This Year (Jun15) TTM:||Last Year (Jun14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $44 Mil.|
Revenue was 560.209 + 543.332 + 609.607 + 638.8 = $2,352 Mil.
Gross Profit was 449.946 + 438.277 + 503.102 + 529.525 = $1,921 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $808 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,603 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $473 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $64 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,584 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $421 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $177 Mil.
Net Income was 44.657 + 36.282 + 46.507 + 68.308 = $196 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -2.758 + -12.268 + -16.127 + 1.073 = $-30 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 85.404 + 74.198 + 94.793 + 33.608 = $288 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $42 Mil.
Revenue was 650.027 + 671.061 + 1016.085 + 927.612 = $3,265 Mil.
Gross Profit was 494.017 + 564.417 + 851.413 + 787.796 = $2,698 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $846 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,604 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $429 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $44 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,185 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $519 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $112 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(43.543 / 2351.948)||/||(41.712 / 3264.785)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(438.277 / 3264.785)||/||(449.946 / 2351.948)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (807.707 + 473.216) / 1602.62)||/||(1 - (846.047 + 429.332) / 1603.614)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(44.361 / (44.361 + 429.332))||/||(64.06 / (64.06 + 473.216))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(1584.149 / 2351.948)||/||(2184.839 / 3264.785)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((177.178 + 420.749) / 1602.62)||/||((111.621 + 518.676) / 1603.614)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(195.754 - -30.08||-||288.003)||/||1602.62|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Nu Skin Enterprises Inc has a M-score of -2.51 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Nu Skin Enterprises Inc Annual Data
Nu Skin Enterprises Inc Quarterly Data