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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of New York Times Co was -2.16. The lowest was -3.17. And the median was -2.71.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of New York Times Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9881||+||0.528 * 0.9876||+||0.404 * 1.2022||+||0.892 * 0.9947||+||0.115 * 1.1108|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0168||+||4.679 * -0.0395||-||0.327 * 1.006|
|This Year (Sep15) TTM:||Last Year (Sep14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $158 Mil.|
Revenue was 367.404 + 382.886 + 384.239 + 444.683 = $1,579 Mil.
Gross Profit was 215.373 + 230.113 + 227.603 + 278.792 = $952 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $914 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,340 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $639 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $67 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $774 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $324 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $430 Mil.
Net Income was 9.415 + 16.4 + -14.262 + 34.875 = $46 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -1.01 + -1.501 + -1.787 + -9.214 = $-14 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 42.354 + 54.607 + 11.073 + 44.248 = $152 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $160 Mil.
Revenue was 364.718 + 388.719 + 390.408 + 443.86 = $1,588 Mil.
Gross Profit was 203.541 + 230.775 + 231.425 + 279.345 = $945 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,086 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,444 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $675 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $79 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $765 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $589 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $194 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(157.57 / 1579.212)||/||(160.333 / 1587.705)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(230.113 / 1587.705)||/||(215.373 / 1579.212)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (914.083 + 638.836) / 2339.914)||/||(1 - (1085.823 + 674.513) / 2444.11)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(79.314 / (79.314 + 674.513))||/||(66.842 / (66.842 + 638.836))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(773.695 / 1579.212)||/||(765.003 / 1587.705)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((430.007 + 323.788) / 2339.914)||/||((194.15 + 588.515) / 2444.11)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(46.428 - -13.512||-||152.282)||/||2339.914|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
New York Times Co has a M-score of -2.60 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
New York Times Co Annual Data
New York Times Co Quarterly Data