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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
New York Times Co has a M-score of -2.66 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of New York Times Co was -2.15. The lowest was -3.14. And the median was -2.73.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of New York Times Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.8377||+||0.528 * 0.9933||+||0.404 * 1.0197||+||0.892 * 0.9935||+||0.115 * 0.9269|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9863||+||4.679 * -0.0042||-||0.327 * 1.0197|
|This Year (Jun14) TTM:||Last Year (Jun13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $160 Mil.|
Revenue was 388.719 + 390.408 + 443.86 + 361.738 = $1,585 Mil.
Gross Profit was 230.775 + 231.425 + 279.345 + 209.143 = $951 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,044 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,464 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $688 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $81 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $738 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $552 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $442 Mil.
Net Income was 9.188 + 1.743 + 65.626 + -24.226 = $52 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -1.103 + -3.337 + -0.972 + -1.478 = $-7 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 12.541 + -4.443 + 24.785 + 36.632 = $70 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $192 Mil.
Revenue was 390.957 + 380.675 + 468.114 + 355.337 = $1,595 Mil.
Gross Profit was 237.888 + 223.941 + 290.674 + 197.967 = $950 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,054 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,648 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $822 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $89 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $753 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $353 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $694 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(159.694 / 1584.725)||/||(191.869 / 1595.083)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(231.425 / 1595.083)||/||(230.775 / 1584.725)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1044.288 + 687.724) / 2464.492)||/||(1 - (1053.507 + 822.414) / 2647.621)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(89.372 / (89.372 + 822.414))||/||(81.33 / (81.33 + 687.724))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(738.275 / 1584.725)||/||(753.403 / 1595.083)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((442.396 + 551.622) / 2464.492)||/||((694.158 + 353.101) / 2647.621)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(52.331 - -6.89||-||69.515)||/||2464.492|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
New York Times Co has a M-score of -2.66 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
New York Times Co Annual Data
New York Times Co Quarterly Data