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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Oil-Dri Corp of America was -2.17. The lowest was -3.23. And the median was -2.69.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Oil-Dri Corp of America for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9623||+||0.528 * 0.7825||+||0.404 * 1.105||+||0.892 * 1.0035||+||0.115 * 0.9972|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.367||+||4.679 * -0.0562||-||0.327 * 0.9015|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.
|This Year (Jul16) TTM:||Last Year (Jul15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $30.4 Mil.|
Revenue was 64.916 + 64.235 + 65.367 + 67.795 = $262.3 Mil.
Gross Profit was 18.866 + 18.568 + 19.062 + 20.653 = $77.1 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $91.2 Mil.
Total Assets was $204.9 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $80.7 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $12.2 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $61.7 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $30.7 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $12.3 Mil.
Net Income was 5.261 + -0.892 + 3.821 + 5.423 = $13.6 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -0.235 + 0.25 + -0.085 + 0.02 = $-0.0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 5.762 + 2.358 + 8.535 + 8.516 = $25.2 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $31.5 Mil.
Revenue was 65.519 + 65.196 + 64.643 + 66.044 = $261.4 Mil.
Gross Profit was 16.722 + 14.433 + 15.233 + 13.769 = $60.2 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $82.6 Mil.
Total Assets was $190.0 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $79.7 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $12.0 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $45.0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $28.9 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $15.4 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(30.386 / 262.313)||/||(31.466 / 261.402)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(60.157 / 261.402)||/||(77.149 / 262.313)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (91.173 + 80.711) / 204.933)||/||(1 - (82.643 + 79.655) / 190.031)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(11.994 / (11.994 + 79.655))||/||(12.192 / (12.192 + 80.711))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(61.736 / 262.313)||/||(45.004 / 261.402)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((12.333 + 30.74) / 204.933)||/||((15.417 + 28.888) / 190.031)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(13.613 - -0.05||-||25.171)||/||204.933|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Oil-Dri Corp of America has a M-score of -2.88 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Oil-Dri Corp of America Annual Data
Oil-Dri Corp of America Quarterly Data