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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Overstock.com Inc was 1.17. The lowest was -6.10. And the median was -3.24.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Overstock.com Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.8479||+||0.528 * 1.014||+||0.404 * 0.8709||+||0.892 * 1.1656||+||0.115 * 1.1465|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9954||+||4.679 * -0.1908||-||0.327 * 1.0661|
|This Year (Mar15) TTM:||Last Year (Mar14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $16 Mil.|
Revenue was 398.344 + 470.36 + 352.991 + 332.545 = $1,554 Mil.
Gross Profit was 75.437 + 85.38 + 67.058 + 62.625 = $291 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $195 Mil.
Total Assets was $320 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $55 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $20 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $191 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $184 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0 Mil.
Net Income was 2.739 + 1.358 + 1.617 + 1.909 = $8 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.605 + 0.536 + -0.35 + 0.524 = $1 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -43.089 + 81.33 + 28.803 + 0.38 = $67 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $16 Mil.
Revenue was 341.207 + 397.593 + 301.426 + 293.204 = $1,333 Mil.
Gross Profit was 63.996 + 71.735 + 59.15 + 57.839 = $253 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $176 Mil.
Total Assets was $281 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $33 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $14 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $165 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $151 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(15.651 / 1554.24)||/||(15.836 / 1333.43)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(85.38 / 1333.43)||/||(75.437 / 1554.24)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (195.066 + 54.947) / 320.398)||/||(1 - (176.39 + 33.417) / 280.578)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(14.454 / (14.454 + 33.417))||/||(19.645 / (19.645 + 54.947))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(191.056 / 1554.24)||/||(164.673 / 1333.43)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 183.733) / 320.398)||/||((0 + 150.916) / 280.578)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(7.623 - 1.315||-||67.424)||/||320.398|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Overstock.com Inc has a M-score of -3.41 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Overstock.com Inc Annual Data
Overstock.com Inc Quarterly Data