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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Otelco, Inc. was -2.20. The lowest was -8.79. And the median was -2.92.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Otelco, Inc. for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9988||+||0.528 * 0.9837||+||0.404 * 0.9833||+||0.892 * 0.9474||+||0.115 * 1.0957|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.1182||+||4.679 * -0.1276||-||0.327 * 0.9427|
|This Year (Mar15) TTM:||Last Year (Mar14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $3.42 Mil.|
Revenue was 17.643 + 18.178 + 18.421 + 18.488 = $72.73 Mil.
Gross Profit was 9.386 + 9.422 + 9.658 + 9.889 = $38.36 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $18.78 Mil.
Total Assets was $120.61 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $50.72 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $10.05 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $10.84 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $17.40 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $100.09 Mil.
Net Income was 2.135 + 0.94 + 1.387 + 1.308 = $5.77 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 1.064 + -0.133 + -0.306 + -0.077 = $0.55 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 6.786 + 3.053 + 5.25 + 5.519 = $20.61 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $3.61 Mil.
Revenue was 18.782 + 19.338 + 18.98 + 19.666 = $76.77 Mil.
Gross Profit was 9.385 + 9.943 + 9.915 + 10.579 = $39.82 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $19.05 Mil.
Total Assets was $127.61 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $53.56 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $11.85 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $10.24 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $16.80 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $115.06 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(3.416 / 72.73)||/||(3.61 / 76.766)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(9.422 / 76.766)||/||(9.386 / 72.73)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (18.778 + 50.718) / 120.61)||/||(1 - (19.047 + 53.562) / 127.605)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(11.851 / (11.851 + 53.562))||/||(10.047 / (10.047 + 50.718))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(10.844 / 72.73)||/||(10.236 / 76.766)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((100.09 + 17.403) / 120.61)||/||((115.061 + 16.795) / 127.605)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(5.77 - 0.548||-||20.608)||/||120.61|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Otelco, Inc. has a M-score of -3.13 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Otelco, Inc. Annual Data
Otelco, Inc. Quarterly Data